Consecuencias ecológicas del enriquecimiento por materia orgánica procedente de la acuicultura y de vertidos de petróleo en ecosistemas costeros

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Departamento de Ecología e Hidrología Facultad de Biología Universidad de Murcia

Consecuencias ecológicas del enriquecimiento por materia orgánica procedente de la acuicultura y de vertidos de petróleo en ecosistemas costeros

Tesis doctoral Carlos Sanz Lázaro 2009

Departamento de Ecología e Hidrología Facultad de Biología Universidad de Murcia

Ecological consequences of organicmatter enrichment derived from aquaculture and oil spills in coastal ecosystems Consecuencias ecológicas del enriquecimiento por materia orgánica procedente de la acuicultura y de vertidos de petróleo en ecosistemas costeros

Memoria presentada para optar al grado de doctor en Biología por el licenciado

Carlos Sanz Lázaro 2009

A mis padres

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

Ecological consequences oforganic matter enrichment derived from aquaculture and oil spills in coastal ecosystems Consecuencias ecológicas del enriquecimiento por materia orgánica procedente de la acuicultura y de vertidos de petróleo en ecosistemas costeros

General abstract……………………………………………………………………..…………….… 1

Chapter 1. Toxicity Studies of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on EuropeanAmphipods..........……………………………………................................................................. 10

Chapter 2. A manipulative field experiment to evaluate an integrative methodology for assessing sediment pollution in estuarine ecosystems……………………………………………………... 21

Chapter 3. Linking horizontal and vertical waste dispersion with benthic impact in an offshore finfish farm with a highly efficient feeding system………………………………………………. 44

Chapter 4. The role of predation in the benthic system influenced by a finfish farm with a moderate level of organic matter input...............................…………………………………..… 66

Chapter 5. Benthic recovery during open sea fish farming abatement in Western Mediterranean, Spain. ………………………………………………………………………………………..….…… 82

Acknowledgements……………………………....................................…………………………. 99 Ecological consequences of organic matter enrichment

GENERAL ABSTRACT

Organic matter enrichment, one of the most common sources of contamination, can be generated by very diverse human activities. Coastal areas are regarded as areas of high primary productivity (Viaroli et al., 1996; Underwood and Kromkamp, 1999; Chapman and Wang, 2001). They are also considered as threatened and/or declininghabitats, since they tend to be more severely affected by contaminants than other ecosystems because waves and tidal movements may encourage the accumulation of toxicants. Important biogeochemical processes take place in coastal sediments, which are related with carbon and nutrient fluxes relevant on a global scale. Any pollution affecting these areas may have serious consequences for these cycles.The ultimate fate of suspended particulate matter is to sink and settle on the sea floor, where it is incorporated into the sediment stratigraphy. Although the sources of the particulate matter that make up the benthic habitat vary spatially and temporally, with few exceptions the microbial and faunal communities of the benthos intimately depend on the productivity of the surface waters of theoceans (Solan and Wigham, 2005). The particulate matter input from the water column to the seabed is low and benthic communities are supported by relatively minor rates of organic matter and nutrient flux. Therefore, when organic matter input rates increase, if the organic load is large enough, it can exceed the carrying capacity of the ecosystem and produce substantial changes in the chemicalparameters of the sediment, as well as in the benthic communities. Organic matter overload consumes the oxygen of the surface of the seabed, producing hypoxia, and, if the carbon deposition rate is too high, the seafloor can reach anoxic conditions. The consequence of oxygen consumption is the appearance of bacteria with an anaerobic metabolism that uses compounds...
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