J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):121-6.
1.- Fitness test results of Hungarian and international-level soccer referees and assistants.
Bartha C, Petridis L, Hamar P, Puhl S, Castagna C.
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. email@example.com
The aim of our research was primarily to compare theconditional abilities of European countries' Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) referees with those of Hungarian national and county referees and, secondly, to investigate whether the stop tests of FIFA and the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) provide reliable discrimination criteria between the different levels of referees. The main focuses of our research werespeed and endurance, which were measured by the stop tests of FIFA and UEFA-namely, 50- and 200-m sprint runs and a 12-minute run, respectively (Cooper test). In our study, the test results of 2459 soccer referees were analyzed; they include the results of the total Hungarian population of referees and the results from 17 different European countries. Referees were classified into 6 different levelsaccording to their qualifications. The results show that in the 12-minute run, FIFA referees covered the longest distance (3043 +/- 127 m), followed by the Hungarian elite referees (2939 +/- 136 m); less distance was covered by county III-level referees (2522 +/- 270 m). Differences between groups in the endurance event were significant (p < 0.05) in all cases. In the sprint runs, there was nodifference between FIFA and Hungarian elite referees. In both sprints, FIFA-level and Hungarian elite referees performed the fastest times, and county III-level referees had the slowest times. It can be concluded that the aerobic fitness level demonstrated in the 12-minute run provides the most adequate criteria for discrimination between different competitive levels. Hungarian elite referees, on thebasis of their fitness test results, are comparable with international-level referees. The major quality step in a referee's career can be located at the third-division competition level.
Eur J Pediatr. 2008 May;167(5):563-8. Epub 2007 Aug 29.
2.- Predictors of 6-minute walk test and 12-minute walk/run test in obese children and adolescents.
Calders P, Deforche B, Verschelde S, BouckaertJ, Chevalier F, Bassle E, Tanghe A, De Bode P, Franckx H.
Revalidation Sciences and Physiotherapy Ghent, Campus Heymans 1B3, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of the distance achieved during a 6-minute walk test and a 12-minute walk/run test (Cooper test) in obese children and adolescents and toevaluate the influence of a residential treatment on the association of these predictors with the distance. A search of the Revalidation Centre Zeepreventorium (De Haan, Belgium) medical records database of all children and adolescents (age 10 to 18 yrs) treated for obesity between September 2003 and February 2006, revealed 65 charts with all relevant data (anthropometrical, maximal graded exercise,lung function, 6-minute walk test and 12-minute walk/run test) at admission as well as after 3 months treatment. The multidisciplinary treatment has a positive influence on anthropometrical variables, endurance capacity, vital capacity, and residual volume (p < 0.05). The distance covered during the 6-minute walk test and the 12-minute walk/run test is correlated with all anthropometrical data andpeak VO2 (p < 0.05). After 3 months of treatment, bivariate correlation was stronger for almost every parameter compared to admission. Following a stepwise regression, BMI z-score is a dominant predictor of both field tests at admission and after 3 months treatment. VO2peak contributes only significantly in the 12-minute walk/run test at admission. Conclusion: In obese children and adolescents...