Container handbook

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  • Publicado : 11 de mayo de 2011
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A
absorption
Refers to the taking up of gases or vapors by liquids and/or solids where the gas or
vapor fully penetrates the liquid or solid (adsorption is limited to the surface).
acid value
The acid value specifies how many milligrams of potassium hydroxide (KOH) are
necessary to neutralize the free fatty acids in a single gram of fat.
across the grain
The cross-section that is theresult of cutting a tree trunk perpendicular to its length.
(As opposed to "with the grain").
active behavior
Applies to goods that have an active influence on other goods and their environment.
additives
Substances added to other substances in order to modify their properties in a particular
manner or to improve processing.
adjustable stanchion
These are collapsible stanchions that can beinserted and locked in place or unlocked
and folded down. Stanchions are suitable for providing tight fitting lateral load securing
for many types of load.
adsorption
The uptake of gases, vapor or dissolved substances (this is limited to the surface of
solid objects).
adsorption delay
Delayed take up of water vapor by the cargo. In the Container Handbook, this refers
exclusively to watervapor and describes the fact that during the day the water vapor is
given off by the cargo to the air in the container (desorption) faster than the cooling of
the container air is introduces water vapor to the cargo (adsorption). The water vapor
condenses on the walls of the container thus leading to damage.
adsorption isotherms
As used in the Container Handbook: Graphical representation of theuptake of water
vapor by a substance at a specified temperature. For product information purposes, the
sorption isotherms are usually taken for a temperature of 20°C.
aerobe
(Greek: aer - air) Microorganisms that require atmospheric oxygen.
aerobic respiration
Greek: aer - air) Metabolic process of goods of vegetable origin, during which glucose
and atmospheric oxygen are consumed byrespiration processes to form carbon dioxide,
water vapor and heat.
aflatoxins
Short form of Aspergillus - flavus - toxin. A mycotoxin (mold toxin) that is produced by
the fungus Aspergillus - flavus among others.
A-frame
Frame shaped like the letter "A" used to transport sheet loads, similar to the type of
frame used when transporting panes of glass.
agglomeration
Lump formation.
airbagAirbags can be positioned in the gaps between the cargo in order to achieve a tight fit
during loading.
allelopathy
(Greek: allelon - mutual; pathe - influence) The mutual influence of goods of vegetable
origin when stored together, caused as a result of gaseous metabolic products, for
example, ethylene or carbon dioxide.
American Rust Standards
Used to classify corrosion damage. The AmericanRust Standard is recognized worldwide
and widely used. It is often used in reports produced by surveyors.
amorphous
Without shape, without a fixed form.
anaerobe
(Greek: an - without, and aer - air) A microorganism that survives without atmospheric
oxygen.
anaerobic respiration
(Greek: an - without; and aer - air) Occurs with goods of vegetable origin if the
permitted carbon dioxide contentis exceeded.
animal goods
Goods of animal origin.
anthropogenic influence
Influence caused by human activity.
apparent density
Density of lumber including hollow space.
Arrhenius equation
An equation describing the dependency of reaction speed on temperature. A simplified
rule of thumb for transportation purposes is that when the temperature is lowered by
10°C, degradation processes arereduced to between half and a third, i.e. the storage
life can be doubled or even trebled by lowering the temperature by 10°C.
athwartships stowage
Load stowed across the beam of the container or ship (as opposed to fore and aft
stowage). In the context of load securing, it is of utmost importance whether a
container is stowed athwartships or fore and aft on a ship. In the case of...
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