Moist-heat cooking methods
generally, moist-heat cooking meth- ods use a liquid for cooking – usually water, stock or steam. the advan- tage of steam is that it transfers more heat at the same temperature. As a result, the food cooks faster and fewer nutrients are lost. the cooking temperature may vary from 70°–120° C (158°–212° F). these methods
are particularly suitable forprepar- ing pasta, rice, pulses and vegeta- bles. the methods referenced below, though not exhaustive, are the more common techniques.
• When practical, save the cooking liquid for use in stocks, sauces and casseroles.
• To add vitamins, sprinkle some fresh herbs onto the cooked food.
Cooking in liquid at a temperature under the boiling point (75°– 95° C/ 167°– 203° F).Tips:
• Not ideal for nutrient retention in vegetables and potatoes, because a long cooking time results in addi- tional nutrient loss through osmosis (nutrients boiled out into the liquid). Use a pot with a large diameter.
If possible, add herbs or spices to the poaching liquid rather than salt or sugar.
Cooking at a temperature of about 100°C (212° F) in steam, with the food andcooking liquid completely sepa- rated. You can use a commercial steamer or a pot with a rack that suspends the food above a small amount of simmering liquid.
• Use a flavoured liquid like stock, wine, water infused with herbs, lemon, etc.
Stewing / Braising:
Meat is often browned before liquid is added. Meats and vegetables can be cooked or steamed in their own juice. A particular way ofstewing
is to glaze: vegetables (carrots, small onions) become covered with the stew stock, which is reduced and enriched with a little sugar.
Cooking in a lot of liquid at a tem- perature of about 100° C (212° F). Tips: • • Generally use as little water as
possible to minimize the loss of vitamins and minerals.
GOOD TO KNOW
• Deactivation of enzymes
• Preservation of thecolour
• Killing of microorganisms that may be present
Note: loss of about 20–30% of vitamin C, but vitamin retention improves during subsequent storage (chill- freeze process).
• Drain and refresh in cold or iced water immediately to prevent fur- ther vitamin loss through cooking.
• Do not leave the food in the water as this will cause further loss of nutrients through osmosis and willsoften the texture of the food.
Note: Osmosis: Nutrients in food leak or diffuse to liquid with lower con- centration. Therefore, it is important to use this liquid for the sauce or as stock for soups because it is rich in vitamins and minerals.
GOOD TO REMEMBER
Cooking in an airtight pressure cooker at about 105° – 120° C (221° – 248° F). Note: higher temperature equalsshorter cooking time. The steamer is also suitable for blanching, poaching and reheating.
Cooking with electromagnetic waves, either with or without a small amount of added liquid. The food can be browned or given a crust only if com- bined with a dry-heat method such as grilling. It is ideally suited for reheating food.
• The food may cook unevenly and have hot and coldspots.
– For liquids: stir about halfway through the cooking time to dis- tribute heat more evenly.
– For solid food: let sit for several minutes after cooking or reheat- ing, before serving.
• If the thickness of food (e.g. piece of meat) is more than the penetration of the microwaves, there is a risk of the core remaining raw. As a result, any existing microorganisms (e.g. salmonellaein poultry) may not be killed.
• Frozen products do not conduct heat well, so there is a risk of the outside area overheating while the inside remains raw.
Note: defrost on low heat and cook
immediately. • Suitable dishes: glass, porcelain,
and microwave-safe plastic dishes.
Dry-heatcook- ing methods
heat is transferred through air or fat. the cooking temperature is between 120°–150° C...