Cooking methods

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Cooking Methods
Moist-heat cooking methods
generally, moist-heat cooking meth- ods use a liquid for cooking – usually water, stock or steam. the advan- tage of steam is that it transfers more heat at the same temperature. As a result, the food cooks faster and fewer nutrients are lost. the cooking temperature may vary from 70°–120° C (158°–212° F). these methods
are particularly suitable forprepar- ing pasta, rice, pulses and vegeta- bles. the methods referenced below, though not exhaustive, are the more common techniques.
• When practical, save the cooking liquid for use in stocks, sauces and casseroles.
• To add vitamins, sprinkle some fresh herbs onto the cooked food.
Cooking in liquid at a temperature under the boiling point (75°– 95° C/ 167°– 203° F).Tips:
• Not ideal for nutrient retention in vegetables and potatoes, because a long cooking time results in addi- tional nutrient loss through osmosis (nutrients boiled out into the liquid). Use a pot with a large diameter.
If possible, add herbs or spices to the poaching liquid rather than salt or sugar.
Cooking at a temperature of about 100°C (212° F) in steam, with the food andcooking liquid completely sepa- rated. You can use a commercial steamer or a pot with a rack that suspends the food above a small amount of simmering liquid.
• Use a flavoured liquid like stock, wine, water infused with herbs, lemon, etc.
Stewing / Braising:
Meat is often browned before liquid is added. Meats and vegetables can be cooked or steamed in their own juice. A particular way ofstewing
is to glaze: vegetables (carrots, small onions) become covered with the stew stock, which is reduced and enriched with a little sugar.
Cooking in a lot of liquid at a tem- perature of about 100° C (212° F). Tips: • • Generally use as little water as
possible to minimize the loss of vitamins and minerals.
• Deactivation of enzymes
• Preservation of thecolour
• Killing of microorganisms that may be present
Note: loss of about 20–30% of vitamin C, but vitamin retention improves during subsequent storage (chill- freeze process).
• Drain and refresh in cold or iced water immediately to prevent fur- ther vitamin loss through cooking.
• Do not leave the food in the water as this will cause further loss of nutrients through osmosis and willsoften the texture of the food.
Note: Osmosis: Nutrients in food leak or diffuse to liquid with lower con- centration. Therefore, it is important to use this liquid for the sauce or as stock for soups because it is rich in vitamins and minerals.

Pressure cooking:
Cooking in an airtight pressure cooker at about 105° – 120° C (221° – 248° F). Note: higher temperature equalsshorter cooking time. The steamer is also suitable for blanching, poaching and reheating.

Cooking with electromagnetic waves, either with or without a small amount of added liquid. The food can be browned or given a crust only if com- bined with a dry-heat method such as grilling. It is ideally suited for reheating food.
• The food may cook unevenly and have hot and coldspots.
– For liquids: stir about halfway through the cooking time to dis- tribute heat more evenly.
– For solid food: let sit for several minutes after cooking or reheat- ing, before serving.
• If the thickness of food (e.g. piece of meat) is more than the penetration of the microwaves, there is a risk of the core remaining raw. As a result, any existing microorganisms (e.g. salmonellaein poultry) may not be killed.
• Frozen products do not conduct heat well, so there is a risk of the outside area overheating while the inside remains raw.
Note: defrost on low heat and cook
immediately. • Suitable dishes: glass, porcelain,
and microwave-safe plastic dishes.
Dry-heatcook- ing methods
heat is transferred through air or fat. the cooking temperature is between 120°–150° C...
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