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* Reformation and Counter-Reformation
* Council of Trent
* Orders
* Spiritual movements
* Decrees on art
* Church music
* Reforms during the 22nd session
* The Savior-Legend
* Reforms following the Council of Trent
* Inadvertent start of the scientific revolution
* Major figures
* Protestant Reformation (1521–1610)* Martin Luther
* Ulric h Zwingli
* John Calvin
* English Reformation
* Counter-Reformation (1545–1610)
* Catholic missions
The Catholic church was awares by the Reformation. It had been having opposition, and resistance for over four hundred years; In answer to the growth of the Protestant movement, the Catholic Church instituted its ownseries of reforms that balanced real reform with a strident and conservative reaction to Protestantism. This movement was called the Counter-Reformation.
Counter-Reformation(also the Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the Thirty Years' War, 1648 as a response to the Protestant Reformation.
The Counter-Reformationwas composed of four major elements:
1. Ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration
2. Religious orders
3. Spiritual movements
4. Political dimensions
These reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the Church, the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritualfoundations, and new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ.

A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving. madeinstitutional reform, addressing issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, indulgences, and other financial abuses. The Council clearly rejected specific positions and upheld the basic structure of the MedievalChurch, its sacramental system, religious orders, and doctrine.
The council rejected all compromise with the Protestants, restating basic of the Roman Catholic faith.
* The Council clearly upheld salvation appropriated by grace through faith and works of that faith (not just by faith, as the Protestants insisted) because "faith without works is dead", as the Epistle of St. James states.* Transubstantiation, during which the consecrated bread and wine were held to be transformed wholly and substantially into the body, blood, soul and divinity of Christ, was also reaffirmed, along with the other six Sacraments of the Catholic Church.
* Other practices, such as pilgrimages, the veneration of saints and relics, and the veneration of the Virgin Mary were strongly reaffirmed asspiritually commendable practice and this drew the ire of Protestant reformers.
* The Council officially accepted the Vulgate listing of the Old Testament Bible which included the deuterocanonical works (also called the Apocrypha, especially by Protestants) .
* All of this events reaffirmed the previous council of Rome and Synod of Carthage ( held in the 4th century, A.D.) which hadaffirmed the Deuterocanon as Scripture.
* The Council also commissioned the Roman Catechism, which still serves as authoritative Church teaching (the Catechism of the Catholic Church).
While the basic structure of the Church was reaffirmed, there were noticeable changes to answer complaints that the Counter-Reformers were, tacitly, willing to admit were legitimate.

Some conditions to becorrected by Catholic reformers was;
* The growing divide between the clerics and the laity
* Address the education of priests was a fundamental focus. In the past many members of the clergy in the rural parishes, had been poorly educated. Often, these rural priests did not know Latin and lacked opportunities for proper theological training. Parish priests were to be better educated in...
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