Critical thinking is independent thinking. When critical thinking is encouraged in a classroom, inquiries raise open questions with more than onepossible answer, and students are expected to take their own perspectives and make their own interpretations.
Information is the starting point for critical thinking, not the end point. Classrooms shouldbe intellectually rich places that expose students to interesting ideas to think about.
Critical thinking begins with questions, with problems to be solved. The material is presented to studentswith invitations to inquire, interpret, synthesize, apply, and invent, and not simply to learn and recall. Learning takes place when knowledge is used.
Critical thinking seeks reasoned arguments.Simply put, teachers invite students to make claims (or offer interpretations, or venture solutions to problems), support those claims with reasons, and base the reasons on evidence.
Critical thinkingis social thinking. The philosopher Karl Popper argued that the truth comes not from philosopher kings, but from open societies where ideas can freely be tested against each other. Here, then, is aplace where good philosophy and good pedagogy come together, because classrooms are more interesting places when students can take different perspectives and ideas can compete. At its best, social andcritical thinking often seek the betterment of society.
Critical thinking seeks reasoned arguments. Simply put, teachers invite students to make claims (or offer interpretations, or venture solutionsto problems), support those claims with reasons, and base the reasons on evidence.
We were dealing with people who truly believed there was only one side to an issue.
... learn to think forthemselves:
"Because we don't want to keep passing on this dictatorship of 'I have the right answer and you must learn it' that we were raised with."
It was not just the ends of critical...