This article is about the country. For other uses, see Cuba (disambiguation).
Republic of Cuba República de Cuba (Spanish) |
Flag | Coat of arms |
Motto: Patria o Muerte (Spanish)
"Homeland or Death" |
Anthem: La Bayamesa ("The Bayamo Song") |
(and largest city) | Havana
23°8′N 82°23′W / 23.133°N 82.383°W / 23.133; -82.383 |
Officiallanguage(s) | Spanish |
Ethnic groups | 65.05% White (Spanish, others), 10.08% African (Igbo, other), 23.84% Mulatto and Mestizo |
Demonym | Cuban |
Government | Unitary republic, communist state |
- | President | Raúl Castro |
- | First Vice President | J. R. M. Ventura |
- | PCC First Secretary | Fidel Castro |
Independence | from Spain |
- | Declared | October 10,1868 |
- | Republic declared | May 20, 1902
from United States |
- | Cuban Revolution | January 1, 1959 |
- | Total | 109,886 km2 (105th)
42,427 sq mi |
- | Water (%) | negligible |
- | 2009 estimate | 11,239,363 (75th) |
- | 2002 census | 11,177,743 |
- | Density | 102/km2 (103rd)
265/sq mi |
GDP (PPP) | 2009 estimate |
- | Total | $111.1 billion (62nd) |
- | Per capita | $9,700 (86th) |
GDP (nominal) | 2009 estimate |
- | Total | $67.26 billion (62nd) |
- | Per capita | $5,984 (78th) |
HDI (2007) | 0.863 (high) (51st) |
Currency | Cuban peso(CUP)
Cuban convertible peso (CUC) |
Time zone | (UTC−5) |
- | Summer (DST) | (March 11 to November 4) (UTC−4) |
Drives on the | right |ISO 3166 code | CU |
Internet TLD | .cu |
Calling code | +53 |
The Republic of Cuba (pronounced /ˈkjuːbə/ ( listen); Spanish: República de Cuba, pronounced [reˈpuβlika ðe ˈkuβa] ( listen)) is an island country in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country'scapital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city. To the north of Cuba lies the United States and the Bahamas, Mexico is to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are to the south, and Haiti and the Dominican Republic are to the southeast.
In 1492, Christopher Columbus found and claimed the island now occupied by Cuba, for the Kingdom of Spain. Cuba remained territory of Spain until theSpanish–American War ended in 1898, and gained formal independence from the U.S. in 1902. Between 1953 and 1959 the Cuban Revolution occurred, removing the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista, and installing an alternative dictatorship led by Fidel Castro.
Cuba is home to over 11 million people and is the most populous island nation in the Caribbean. Its people, culture, and customsdraw from diverse sources, such as the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and its proximity to the United States.
Cuba has a 99.8% literacy rate, an infant death rate lower than some developed countries, and an average life expectancy of 77.64. In 2006, Cuba was the only nation in the world which met the WWF'sdefinition of sustainable development; having an ecological footprint of less than 1.8 hectares per capita and a Human Development Index of over 0.8 for 2007.
Contents * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 2.1 Pre-Columbian era * 2.2 Spanish colonization * 2.3 Independence wars * 2.3.1 Ten Years' War * 2.3.2 Period between wars * 2.3.3 War of 1895 *2.3.4 Spanish–American War * 22.214.171.124 USS Maine * 2.4 Early 20th century * 2.5 Revolution * 2.6 Recent affairs * 3 Human rights * 4 Economy * 5 Government and politics * 5.1 Military * 5.2 Foreign relations * 6 Geography * 6.1 Climate * 6.2 Resources * 7 Demographics * 7.1 Immigration to Cuba * 7.2 Current demographics *...