This paper describes the replication of the Nursing Stress Scale (NSS), translated into a Spanish version, as an instrument to measure the frequency of sources of stress suffered by nurses in the hospital environment. The NSS was administered to 195 nurses on a general, public hospital. Our factor analysis found nine components. Validity was determined by correlation with measuresof the STAI. In addition, we studied correlation with role conflict and ambiguity, and occupational commitment
Gray-Toft and Anderson (1981, 1981b, 1983) designed an instrument to measure the frequency in which hospital nurses suffered work-related sources of stress: the Nursing Stress Scale (NSS). In their study they obtained a factor structure of 7 dimensions: Death and dying,Conflict with physicians, Inadequate preparation, Lack of support, Conflict with other nurses, Work load, and Uncertainty concerning treatment. Other investigations about nurses stress studied some of those sources of stress: too much work, interpersonal relations and relations with hospital administration (Callaghan et al, 2000); death and dying, professional image, relations with the medicalstaff and physicians, emotional overinvolvement, anger, and balancing work and home demands (Kushnir et al, 1997); death and dying (Downey et al, 1995); interpersonal relations and death (Gruppy et al, 1991); work overload, relations with other staff, difficulties with critically ill patients, treatment of patients, and dealing with difficult or helplessly ill patients (Dewe, 1987). In Spain, Peiro(1994) studied job autonomy, feedback from colleagues, goal standardization, tenure, and workload as role stress antecedents; and Rieg et al (1989), as sources of stress: possibility of making mistakes, relations with physician, other nurses and administration, death and dying. Occupational commitment has also been studied in relation with nurse stress (Omad et al, 1999; Glazer, 1999).
2Besides, role conflict and ambiguity appears also related to nurses occupational stress (Glazer, 1999; Peiro, 1994) In this research we hypothesized that the Spanish version of NSS has the same structure as the original one. We also expected high positive correlations between NSS and STAI measures. In our investigation we administered a Spanish version of the NSS to a sample of hospital nurses. Wepartially replicated the factorial structure found by Gray-Toft. We also administered STAI to measure trait and state levels of anxiety. In a second moment, we administered other questionnaires to search for relations among NSS and role conflict and ambiguity, and commitment.
The Scale and other questionnaires (Organizational Commitment of MOWDAY et al., 1982; Role Conflict and Ambiguity ofCortland et al., 1983) were administered to a sample of 195 nurses of 37 Departments on a general, public hospital.
We factor analyzed the scale items using a Principal Components analysis with quartimax rotation. The analysis identified 9 factors. We show in Table 1 only loadings of 0.40 or higher. Two factors are related to the physical environment; five factors have to do withpsychological environment, and two factors refer to social environment:
Physical Environment: - Factor II: Work overload. This factor includes problems with the amount of people and time necessary to complete tasks, and with scheduling. - Factor IX: Computer breakdown. This factor isolates a stressful situation concerning computer failure. Psychological Environment: - Factor III: Death. Includesthose situations that involve death of patients and the feeling of not being able to help with the emotional needs of the patients’ families. - Factor IV: Inadequate preparation. Includes those situations in which appears a perceived lack of knowledge due to conflict with physician or for being asked when no answer is available, and those concerning the emotional need of patients and their...