3 THEORIES: (of human entry to America)
1. CLOVIS 1ST THEORY: Clovis culture were the first inhabitants of the Americas, (named CLOVIS because: archeological site in New Mexico) they migrated to the Americas from Siberia by crossing the land bridge of Beringia @13,000 BP.
• The Clovis culture is believed to haveprimarily hunted large mammals.
• Clovis points: spear heads
• Supporters of the theory claim to not have found solid evidence of pre-Clovis humans in the Americas.
• Ice-free corridors
o Did Clovis culture cause the extinction of the mega fauna by over-hunting them?
o There is a general agreement that America was at once settled by people from Asia who migrated across (oraround) Beringia.
o Genetic evidence suggests that all Native American groups are descendent of ancient Siberians (that means that the evidence suggests that people were from Siberia )
o It is possible that earlier migrations might have occurred, and originated elsewhere.
2. PACIFIC WATERCRAFT MIGRATION THEORY: People reached the Americas via water travel from Siberia.
• Very little evidenceof naval technologies from Mesolithic times
• Humans quickly migrated from NORTH America to SOUTH America.
3. THE SOULUTREAN HYPOTHESIS: it is based on a resemblance between Clovis tools and tools found in Ice Age France.
Pleistocene Mesoamerican sites, agriculture and population estimates for the Americas.
Pleistocene Mesoamerican sites
Pleistocene sites in Mexico: (2)
• 25, 000 yrs ago
• Curved obsidian blades
2. Valsequillo, Puebla.
• 22,000 yrs ago
• Stone tools
• Mammoth butchering sites
• Teosinte: the wild ancestor of the maize.
• Grass w/12 largish kernels
• DNA analysis: suggests that maize (Teosinte) fist became domesticated @ 900 BP.
• Mesoamerican trilogy: corn, beans and squash. (CBS)
• When you eatthem together (CBS), they provide all of the essential amino acids you need.
• Estimates for: 1491
• Today most experts believe that at least 90% of Native Americans were killed by various old word diseases between @1500 & @1700
13 NOTES RELATED TO GUNS, GERMS AND STEEL:
1) Domesticated animals can provide: meat, milk and textiles. (*muscle power, *militarypower, *disease resistance)
• No domesticated animals are native to Europe.
• SW Asia had lots of highly valuable domesticable animals.
• Most farm animals originally came from the Fertile Crescent area.
2) Native Americans had extremely few domesticated animals.
3) Horses were the best form of land travel until @1800:
Steam locomotives (Rail road engines) were the first significantimprovement over horses as concerns land travel.
Tanks were the first significant improvement over hoses as “mobile battle platforms”
4) The maximum extension to Eurasia is @8,000 miles East to West.
The maximum extension of the Americas is @8,000 North to South.
Crops, domesticates animas and technologies concerning their use easily spread from east to west.
Crops, domesticated animals andtechnologies didn´t easily spread from North to South and vice versa.
5) Domesticated crops + animals
6) Places at the same latitude have:
Exactly the same day-length
7) Geography and ecology greatly influence the development (and military power) of civilizations.
8) Human beings have no power to alter basic facts of geography and ecology in abeneficial way.
9) Most of the worst diseases (for human beings) are diseases that originally only affected domesticated animals.
10) @90% of Native Americans were killed by OLD WORLD diseases within 200 years from 1500-1600.
11) Native Americans had acquired little or no resistance to OLD WORLD DISEASES
12) The lack of domesticated animals that could be used as muscle power affected the...