De acuerdo a la leyenda, dos hermanos descendientes del príncipe troyano Aeneas son expuestos al nacer. Rómulo y Remo quieren fundar una ciudad pero discuten sobre en cuál de las colinas fundarla. Rómulo asesina a Remo y Roma es fundada en la colina Palatina, en los bancos del rio Tiber en Latium.
600 a. C. Los Etruscos establecen ciudades desde el norte hasta el centrode Italia
509 a. C. La Republica se establece
La historia Romana dice que las reglas impuestas empeoran bajo el reinado de Tarcano Superbus condicionando así su expulsión por la aristocracia Romana. En su lugar, los nobles establecen una republica organizada por cónsules elegidos anualmente y dirigidos por un poderoso senado. Los ciudadanos votan en asambleas populares deliverando yprivilegiando a favor de individuos de alto rango.
406 BC Rome attacks Veii
After centuries of beating back invaders, Rome goes on the offensive against the neighbouring Etruscan city of Veii. The siege of Veii lasts 10 years. It's the first major victory in a campaign of steady expansion into adjacent Latin and Etruscan territory.
390 BC Gauls sack Rome
Roman defenders fail to stop a huge Gallicinvasion at the battle of the Allia river. The Gauls sweep into Rome and sack the city. It takes payments of gold to persuade them to leave. The defeat leaves a permanent scar on the collective Roman consciousness.
343-341 BC First Samnite War
Seeking to extend its sphere of influence further into Italy, Rome takes on its toughest enemy yet – the Samnite nation of fierce mountain warriors. Romewins this conflict, leaving it in control of the fertile Campania region south of Latium. This victory increases Rome's power-base significantly.
340-338 BC Latin War
Frustration at Rome's increasing domination of Latium leads to a revolt by a number of Latin states. Rome swiftly crushes military resistance in Latium but consolidates its hold on power there by extending Roman citizenship toalmost all parts of the territory.
326-304 BC Second Samnite War
Rome's second clash with the Samnites is far more arduous. Roman legions take fierce beatings at the battle of the Claudine Forks (321 BC) and Lautulae (315 BC). But superior Roman reserves of men and material take their toll and the Samnites are eventually crushed.
298-290 BC Third Samnite War
The Samnites make a last-ditcheffort to shake off Roman domination by allying themselves with the Etruscans, Umbrians and Gauls. But the Roman war machine is stronger than ever, partly due to the construction of new roads. Rome defeats the alliance at the battle of Sentinum (295 BC).
280-275 BC Pyrrhic War
Rome quarrels with the Greek-founded city of Tarentum, which summons assistance from the Greek King Pyrrhus. A giftedgeneral, Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at Heraclea (280 BC) and Asculum (279 BC). But the "Pyrrhic" victories have come at too great a cost. Pyrrhus is crushed by Rome at Beneventum (275 BC).
264-241 BC First Punic War
Rome's first conflict with the Phoenician city of Carthage is fought mainly at sea. Until this point, Rome has not been a sea power but it builds its own navy and defeats Carthage in aseries of sea battles. Victory in this war leaves Rome in possession of Sicily.
238 BC Rome gains Sardinia and Corsica
Insurgents in Carthage-controlled Sardinia invite Roman forces into the island's garrison. Rome is in clear violation of its peace treaty with Carthage but threatens war when Carthage objects. The Phoenician city is obliged to cede Sardinia and Corsica to Rome.
218-202 BCSecond Punic War begins
The Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca marches his forces over the Alps to take on the Romans. He wins a series of spectacular victories and almost defeats Rome. But the Romans hold out and take the fight to Africa, defeating Hannibal at the battle of Zama. Rome now controls Spain.
214-205 BC First Macedonian War
King Philip of Macedonia throws in his lot with...