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Application of Separation Processes
CENG 221 CENG 221 Lecture 1. Introduction to Separation Processes (2 h) Lecture 1. Introduction to Separation Processes (2 h) Learning Objectives: Learning Objectives: (1) Importance of separation processes (1) Importance of separation processes (2) Popular chemical separation processes (2) Popular chemical separation processes (3) What are equilibriumseparation processes (3) What are equilibrium separation processes (4) Vapor-liquid equilibria (4) Vapor-liquid equilibria Learning Guides: Learning Guides: (1) Lecture handouts (1) Lecture handouts (2) Chapters 11and 22of Textbook: Equilibrium-Staged (2) Chapters and of Textbook: Equilibrium-Staged Separations Separations (3) Review thermodynamic notes on Raoult’s Law, (3) Review thermodynamic notes onRaoult’s Law, Antoine equation and DePriestler Chart Antoine equation and DePriestler Chart Physical transformation Chemical transformation

Raw Materials

Product 1

Product 2

Examples: (1) water → distilled water (2) crude oil → gasoline (3) air → nitrogen gas → oxygen gas (4) coconut → cooking oil (5) limestone→ gravel

Examples: (1) water → hydrogen (2) crude oil → polyester (3) air→ ethylene glycol (antifreeze) (4) coconut → medicinal oil (5) limestone→ cement

Application of Separation Processes

Distilled Water
Tap Water

Raw Material

Carbon Adsorber

Reactor

Products

A→B
Filter Ion Exchange

Raw Material 1

Product 1
Bottled Water UV Decontamination Flash Distillation

Separator 1

A+a↔B+b
Reactor

Separator 1

Separator 1

Separator1

Raw Material 2

Product 2

Types of Separation Processes
(1) Distillation processes: * most popular chemical separation process, * capable of producing pure substance from mixture, * requires two phases: liquid and vapor, * uses energy to accomplish separation. Production processes using distillation * oil production, * air separation, * distillation of wine to cognac and spirits.Types of Separation Processes
(2) Absorption/stripping processes: * popular in environmental applications, * transfer gas component from gas to liquid or vice versa, * requires two phases: liquid and gas, * uses the different affinity gas component for gas and liquid. Production processes using absorber * scrubbing smokestacks, * removal of ammonia from refinery, * remove CO2 from air.http://lorien.ncl.ac.uk/ming/distil/distil0.htm http://www.cheresources.com/packcolzz.shtml

Types of Separation Processes
(3) liquid-liquid extraction: * used for processes that requires low temperature operation, * transfer soluble component from one liquid to another, * requires two phases: two immiscible or partially miscible liquids, * uses the different affinity components for separation.Production processes using extraction * food processing, * pharmaceutical separation, * oil purification.

Types of Separation Processes
(4) solid-liquid extraction: * used liquid to extract component from a solid matrix, * transfer soluble component from solid to liquid, * requires two phases: solid and liquid, * uses the solubility of the component for separation. Production processes using leaching* mining, * food processing, * pharmaceutical.

http://www.cheresources.com/extraction.shtml http://www.robatel.com/gb/liquide_liquide.htm

Phase Transformation
Phase Diagram of Water

Phase Equilibria

ya, yb ya + yb = 1

Tv, Pv

xa, xb xa + xb = 1
http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/phase.html

TL, PL

bubble point

saturated vapor

dew point

At Equilibrium: TL = Tv PL = Pv µL= µv

(thermal equilibrium) (mechanical equilibrium) (chemical equilibrium)

subcooled liquid

saturated liquid

superheated vapor

Equilibrium-Staged Operation

Equilibrium-Staged Operation
Multiple Staged Unit

Ethanol + Water Ethanol + Water
LIQUID
LIQUID
Ethanol

Water

Ethanol
Ethanol

Water
Water

VAPOR

Ethanol + Water
Ethanol

Water

VAPOR

Ethanol...
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