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Introducción
Las organizaciones industriales virtuales, nos ponen a nuestra disposición una serie de procedimientos incluyendo algunos de los programas que se trabajan aquí, a continuación se explicaran lo que es & los tipos de los mismos.
2. ONE-OF-A-KIND MANUFACTURING

2.1 One-of-a-kind products
One-of-a-kind (OKP) manufacturing denotes an industrial field where each product isunique. Typically the products are complex and large systems, like industrial plants, large machines or buildings. The recent VO research projects have included cases like power plants, pulp mills, ships, telecommunication networks, production lines and food production machines (Globeman21, Karvonen, 2000, Globemen, IMS GLOBEMEN, 2003).
The products are manufactured only to order. For the customerthey are often infrequent and extensive investments, and the success of the delivery may have a
234 VIRTUAL ORGANIZATIONS significant effect to the customer’s business. Also for the manufacturer the numberof orders / products is limited. As each delivery is a finite assignment with aspecified deadline the manufacturing is often organised and followed in projects.
Because of this terms “projectindustry” or “project business” are also used for thisindustry sector.
The “one-of-a-kind” feature causes that each product must be engineered andmanufactured more or less individually. To do this there are basically twoapproaches:

1. Tailored systems
These are in principle designed and manufactured from scratch according tospecific customer requirements. In practise this is seldom possible dueto costsand schedules, and most often tailored systems or parts of them are based onprevious implementations and existing components. An advantage of tailoredsystems is that the customer needs can be followed in detail. Correspondingly,the high resources required and uncertainties in the implementation cause adisadvantage of high risk to the product quality, schedule and costs.
Configurablesystems
These are based on existing modules or components of which the mostapplicable ones are selected, possibly modified according to process parameters,raw material etc, and integrated to a working system. The advantage ofmodularization is a decrease of required resources and time and re-use ofqualified components and subsystems thus decreasing also the risk of failure.
In practice these twoapproaches are overlapping and may be present also in the

2. Same delivery.
Re-use and modification of previous tailored solutions is necessarilynot so far from configurable systems. In addition it is not always cost-effective tomodularize all the components of a large complex system.

2.2 One-of-a-kind product lifecycle
As each one-of-a-kind product is an individual or an instance of a moregenericproduct family, the concept of product lifecycle is important. The generic lifecycleof GERA (GERAM, 1999) is applicable (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Lifecycle of one-of-a-kind product

A more restricted and concrete example from a previous industrial pulp mill -case (Globeman21) is presented in Figure 2 (Karvonen, 2000). The manufacturingphase with a limited time frame and a specific goal complieswith the definition of aproject: “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service”(PMBOK Guide, 1996). Figure 2 shows the delivery subphases which affect eachother by producing information, control orders, physical material or equipment. Theprocess is not just a simple procedure where phases follow each other. To shorten
Virtual organizations in one-of-a-kind industry235the total lead time the activities are performed concurrently. As this requires usingdefault values in design it often causes a need for iteration (changes to defaults).
The manufacturing project of Figure 2 incorporates two types of inter-dependentprocesses: the project execution process (product delivery) and the project management process. Project management includes project planning,...
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