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DOWAL SCHOOL

TYPES OF ACIDS AND BASES

CARMEN CARDONA

11 “A”

CHEMISTRY

MS. ZELWA CASTELLON

November 29, 2010, Tegucigalpa M.D.C.

TYPES OF ACIDS AND BASES
1. Hydrides as acidsand bases
2. Hydroxyl compounds as acids and bases
3. Metal OH compounds
4. OH compounds of the nonmetals
5. Organic acids
6. Amines and organic bases
7. Oxides as acids andbases
8. Acid anhydrides
9. Amphoteric oxides and hydroxides
10. Metal cations

LEWIS ACIDS AND BASES
A Lewis acid is defined to be any species that accepts lone pair electrons. A Lewisbase is any species that donates lone pair electrons. Thus,  is a Lewis acid, since it can accept a lone pair, while  and NH are Lewis bases, both of which donate a lone pair: 

In the Lowry-Brønstedmodel: "A Brønsted acid is a proton donor, and a Brønsted base is a proton acceptor (abstractor)".
In the Lewis model: "A Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor, and Lewis base is an electron-pairdonor ".

BRONSTED-LOWRY ACIDS AND BASES
The Bronsted-Lowry definition is named for Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry, who independently proposed it in 1923. A Bronsted-Lowry (BL) acid is definedas any substance that can donate a hydrogen ion (proton) and a Bronsted-Lowry base is any substance that can accept a hydrogen ion (proton). Thus, according to the BL definition, acids and bases mustcome in what is called conjugate pairs. For example, consider acetic acid dissolved in water: 

ARRHENIUS ACIDS AND BASES
 The Arrhenius definition of acids and bases is one of the oldest.An Arrhenius acid is a substance that when added to water increases the concentration of H1+ ions present. The chemical formulas of Arrhenius acids are written with the acidic hydrogens first. An Arrheniusbase is a substance that when added to water increases the concentration of OH1- ions present. HCl is an example of an Arrhenius acid and NaOH is an example of an Arrhenius base.

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