Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, theform of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.
After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to getinto cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.
When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulinto move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that isproduced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts ofglucose.
2 ¿qué Tipos de diabetes existen?
The three main types of diabetes are
• type 1 diabetes
• type 2 diabetes
• gestational diabetes
Other types of diabetes include thosecaused by
• genetic defects of the beta cell—the part of the pancreas that makes insulin—such as maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) or neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM)
• geneticdefects in insulin action, resulting in the body’s inability to control blood glucose levels, as seen in leprechaunism and the Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome
• diseases of the pancreas or conditions thatdamage the pancreas, such as pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis
• excess amounts of certain hormones resulting from some medical conditions—such as cortisol in Cushing’s syndrome—that work againstthe action of insulin
• medications that reduce insulin action, such as glucocorticoids, or chemicals that destroy beta cells
• infections, such as congenital rubella and cytomegalovirus...