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An assessment of the effects of wine volatiles on the perception of taste and astringency in wine
María-Pilar Sáenz-Navajas a,b, Eva Campo b, Puriﬁcación Fernández-Zurbano a, Dominique Valentin c, Vicente Ferreira b,*
a b c
Instituto deCiencias de la Vid y el Vino (UR-CSIC-GR), Department of Chemistry, University of La Rioja, Madre de Dios 51, E-26006 Logroño, La Rioja, Spain Laboratory for Aroma Analysis and Enology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain UMR CSG 5170 CNRS INRA UB, CESG, 15 Rue Hugues Picardet, 21000 Dijon, France
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The objective of this work is measuring the effect of different volatile extract compositions on the perception of taste, astringency, global intensity and persistence of wine. Six Spanish wines, two from Chardonnay and four from Tempranillo grapes, all of them showing different chemical and sensory characteristics, were selected. Wines were separated into volatile and non-volatilefractions by solid phase extraction and lyophilisation and further liquid extraction, respectively. Eighteen ‘‘reconstituted wines” were prepared, combining different volatile extracts and different non-volatile matrices and adjusting ethanol content to 12% (v/v), and were further described by a speciﬁcally trained sensory panel. Taste attributes (sweetness, acidity, bitterness), astringency,aroma intensity, global intensity and persistence were assessed in both, original and ‘‘reconstituted” wines by using a numerical category scale. The sensory properties of the original wines were retained by their corresponding ‘‘reconstituted samples”. The sensory assessment of the ‘‘reconstituted wines” showed that the addition of volatile fruity extracts from white wines brought about a decreasein astringency and bitterness and an increase in sweet perception in all cases. While global intensity and persistence of white wine matrices were also increased, they did not change in red wine matrices, which suggests that the volatile fraction plays only a secondary role in these attributes of red wines. Similarly, the effects of replacing the volatile fraction of a red wine by volatileextracts from other red wines were small and inconsistent, which conﬁrms that taste and astringency are primarily driven by non-volatile molecules in these wines. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article history: Received 11 June 2009 Received in revised form 26 January 2010 Accepted 27 January 2010
Keywords: Volatile fraction Non-volatile fraction Taste Reconstituted wines Sensoryanalysis
1. Introduction The overall ﬂavour experience perceived during consumption of food is elicited by the simultaneous stimulation of several senses. It has been widely accepted that interactions can, and do, occur within stimuli (Noble, 1996) (aroma, taste, appearance, or mouth-feel). The presence of aroma–taste interactions has been largely studied and evidenced by the scientiﬁc literature.These interactions may result from physicochemical interactions (structure and binding effects) in the product itself, interactions at the receptor level or cognitive interactions (Small & Prescott, 2005). Since competition at the receptor site is highly unlikely because different receptors are involved among sensory modalities, perceptual interactions are more conceivable. It has beendemonstrated that the orbitofrontal cortex is the structure most likely involved in these perceptual interactions. Stevenson, Boakes, and Prescott (1998) studied the associative learning between odour and taste in experiments
* Corresponding author. E-mail address: email@example.com (V. Ferreira). 0308-8146/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.01.061...