History 115 |
Janerry Jiménez |
Describe the early history of Islam. Review the role that Muhammad played in the founding of Islam. Describe the basic features of the Islamic faith and the rise of the Islamic Empires of the middle Ages.
Muhammad was born in Mecca, capital of Saudi. His family belonged to the clan of Hashem, the tribe ofQuraish, the descendants of Abraham. Muhammad's family of origin was noble but not very rich. Muhammad was fatherless at birth, his father, Abdullah died shortly before birth. His mother Aminah died six years after Muhammad’s birth. His paternal grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, was responsible for the upbringing of Muhammad, but also died shortly after passing the child in the care of Abu Talib, hisfather's older brother. Muhammad grew up and earned the respect of his countrymen for his honesty and politeness. At that age he married Khadija, a widow older than himself and was the most loved woman in his life. Khadija gave Muhammad four daughters and some sons who died young.
One day he was visited by the Angel Gabriel (the Holy Spirit) and he showed him the first verses of the Quran. Since thattime the angel visited Muhammad for twenty years showing that the verses of the Quran are a guide for humanity. The Holy Quran invites mankind to observe nature and see it as the creation of a Supreme God. He invited the Arabs to leave their idols and worship this God and Creator of all existence. For thirteen years he tried to convince the people of Mecca to worship his God alone and freethemselves from the superstitions and myths, but was rejected by his countrymen
Finally, the rejection of the powerful Mecca’s came to plan the death of Muhammad and force him to immigrate to Medina, a farming town north of the Hejaz. Muhammad arrived in Medina the year 622 AD. The first thing he did was write a constitution that would manage relations between citizens. This was a milestonein history ever since the constitution had given rights to all citizens and less to other religions. The constitution of Medina recognized the citizenship of Jews who would work at all as brothers of the Muslims. The constitution recognized the rights of women to come to occupy senior political and academic level, but especially for the first time enjoyed legal status and freedom to makedecisions.
The Islamic State in Medina was the first modern state and its form of government was constitutional, this means that the Constitution and law were above the rulers or the people. It was also the first state with separation of powers because the judiciary was independent of the executive and advisory, which, in turn, were independent. The Islamic State was immediately attacked by the pagans ofMecca and survived numerous attacks and treachery of the Jews, his own countrymen. This constant state of violence against Muslims is the reason for the law and ethics of war, including some verses from the Quran.
The Islamic State overcame the difficulties and finally managed to defeat the pagans of Mecca, protecting the city and its sanctuary to the One God. Shortly before his death Muhammad leda pilgrimage to Mecca with more than 100,000 pilgrims who heard his words of guidance and advice. The year 632 CE Muhammad died after completing his mission and message, leaving a company of religious people who would be the engine of a brilliant civilization, Islam.
Describe the civilizations developed by the Aztecs.
The Aztecs arrived in the Valley of Mexico in the early twelfth century, fromNorthwest Mexico. In 1272 the Aztecs settled in Chapultepec, where they became famous for their aggressiveness and their sacrifices. In one of the islets of the lake, the sight of an eagle eating a snake perched on a cactus showed where they had to build his new capital, Tenochtitlan was founded in 1325.
The base of Aztec society was the family, patriarchal and generally monogamous, although...