Matter is anything that occupies a place in space. In physics and philosophy, matter is the term to refer to the constituents of material larealidad objective, meaning that it can be perceived objectively in the same way by different subjects. It is considered that a significant part of the objects visible or detectable by physical means. That is anything that occupies a place in space,you can touch, you can feel, can be measured, etc..
Physical states of matter
In physics and chemistry is observed that for any substance or material element, changing the conditions of temperature or pressure, can be obtained from different states or phases, known as states of aggregation of matter in relation to the forces binding the particles (molecules , atoms or ions) that constitute it.The material is presented in various states of aggregation, all with different properties and characteristics, and even the most familiar and everyday observations equals four calls fasessólida, liquid, gaseous and plasma, there are other observable states under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material system consisting of two or morepure substances not chemically combined. In a mixture not a chemical reaction occurs and each of its components maintain their identity and chemical properties. However, some mixtures can be reactive, ie that its components can react with each other under certain environmental conditions, such as a mezclaaire-fuel internal combustion engine.
The components of a mixture can be separated by physicalmeans such as distillation, dissolution, magnetic separation, flotation, filtration, decanting or centrifugation. If after mixing some substances, they react chemically, then it can not be recovered by physical means, as new compounds are formed. Although there are no chemical changes in a mixture physical properties such as melting point, may differ from that of its components.
The mixturesare classified into homogeneous and heterogeneous. The components of a mixture may be solid, liquid or gaseous.
Compounds and elements
In chemistry, a compound is a substance formed by the union of two or more elements of the periodic table, in a fixed ratio. A key feature is that it has a chemical formula. For example, water is a compound made of hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 2-1 (innumber of atoms).
In general, this fixed ratio is due to an intrinsic property. A compound is formed pormoléculas or ions with stable links and not due to an arbitrary human selection. For this reason bronze and chocolate are called blends or alloys, but not composed.
The elements of a compound can not be divided or separated by physical processes (sedimentation, filtration, distillation, etc.),but only by chemical processes.
Elements and atoms
Over the centuries have gradually identified a number of substances, called elements, chemicals or simple elements, which appear as part of other bodies, known compounds, but can not be regarded as consisting of simpler ones. For example, oxygen and hydrogen are simple elements, but not water, whose composition involves both and is thereforea composite, granite is a mixture of three compounds, quartz, feldspar and mica, in which formation involving several simple elements.
matter consists of small independent corpuscles and impossible to divide it called atoms (from the Greek word meaning indivisible). Every chemical element consists of an exclusive class of atoms, equal to each other, but different from atoms of other elements,which differ, at least in the but. different kinds of atoms can combine to pose more complex corpusculazo, called molecules, which can be divided by chemical processes in the various atoms that compose them. The difference between simple and compound bodies is that the first molecules are formed by atoms of the same species while the latter molecules are the corresponding atoms of different...