Dislexia

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SIMPOSIO SATÉLITE: DISLEXIA

La intervención en los trastornos disléxicos: entrenamiento de la conciencia fonológica
M.C. Etchepareborda
INTERVENTION IN DYSLEXIC DISORDERS: PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS TRAINING Summary. Taking into account the systems for the treatment of brain information when drawing up a work plan allows us to recreate processing routines that go from multisensory perception tomotor, oral and cognitive production, which is the step prior to executive levels of thought, bottom-up and top-down processing systems. In recent years, the use of phonological methods to prevent or resolve reading disorders has become the fundamental mainstay in the treatment of dyslexia. The work is mainly based on phonological proficiency, which enables the patient to detect phonemes (input),to think about them (performance) and to use them to build words (output). Daily work with rhymes, the capacity to listen, the identification of phrases and words, and handling syllables and phonemes allows us to perform a preventive intervention that enhances the capacity to identify letters, phonological analysis and the reading of single words. We present the different therapeutic models thatare most frequently employed. Fast For Word (FFW) training helps make progress in phonematic awareness and other linguistic skills, such as phonological awareness, semantics, syntax, grammar, working memory and event sequencing. With Deco-Fon, a programme for training phonological decoding, work is carried out on the auditory discrimination of pure tones, letters and consonant clusters, auditoryprocessing speed, auditory and phonematic memory, and graphophonological processing, which is fundamental for speech, language and reading-writing disorders. Hamlet is a programme based on categorisation activities for working on phonological conceptualisation. It attempts to encourage the analysis of the segments of words, syllables or phonemes, and the classification of a certain segment asbelonging or not to a particular phonological or orthographical category. Therapeutic approaches in the early phases of reading are oriented towards two poles based on the basic mechanisms underlying the process of learning to read, the grapheme-phoneme transformation process and global word recognition. The interventionalist strategies used at school are focused on the use of cognitive strategytechniques. The purpose of these techniques is to teach pupils practical strategies or resources aimed at overcoming specific deficiencies. [REV NEUROL 2003; 36 (Supl 1): S13-9] Key words. Computer programmes for treating dyslexia. Deco-Fon. Dyslexia. Fast For Word. Hamlet. Phonematic awareness. Phonological conceptualisation. Phonological decoding. Therapeutic approach.

INTRODUCCIÓN En los últimosaños, el estudio de la dislexia del desarrollo (DD) ha adquirido una enorme fuerza, con la toma en consideración de diferentes ámbitos, que van desde lo fisiológico hasta lo cognitivo [1]. Esto ha permitido reconocer al menos dos modelos fisiopatológicos, un desorden de percepción primario y un déficit en la cognición y los procesos metacognitivos. Las investigaciones demuestran que se afectan áreascerebrales responsables de los procesos perceptuales, la cognición y las tareas metacognitivas [2-4]. Esto quiere decir que, aunque los tratamientos intenten corregir el déficit en uno de los ámbitos, la mejor alternativa terapéutica sería aquella que considerase la naturaleza múltiple del trastorno. Los distintos hallazgos morfológicos encontrados en los cerebros de los disléxicos permitenintuir, desde el punto de vista estructural, los vínculos entre la dislexia y sus manifestaciones comórbidas. Por ejemplo, la implicación de los lóbulos frontales y de los núcleos basales aporta coherencia teórica a la comorbilidad entre la dislexia y el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) [5].

Recibido: 20.01.03. Aceptado: 21.01.03. Laboratorio para el Estudio de las...
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