Since DNA is the blueprint for life, everything living contains DNA. DNA isolation is one of the most basic and essential techniques in the study of DNA. The extraction of DNA from cells and its purification are of primary importance to the field of biotechnology and forensics. Extraction and purification of DNA are the first steps in the analysis and manipulation of DNA that allowscientists to detect genetic disorders, produce DNA fingerprints of individuals, and even create genetically engineered organisms that can produce beneficial products such as insulin, antibiotics, and hormones.
1. What is DNA and RNA?
* DNA: is a molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which contains the biological instructions that make each speciesunique. DNA, along with the instructions it contains, is passed from adult organisms to their offspring during reproduction.
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
* RNA: is the ribonucleic acid (RNA), part of a group of molecules known as the nucleic acids, which are one of the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. RNA ismade up of a long chain of components called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nucleo-base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate group. The sequence of nucleotides allows RNA to encode genetic information. All cellular organisms use messenger RNA to carry the genetic information that directs the synthesis of proteins. Some RNA molecules catalyze biological reactions, controlling geneexpression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals.RNA molecules make a process to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA links amino acids together to form proteins.
2. Parts of the DNA drawing:
3. Parts of the animal cell and functions:
* Cell Membrane: is the outer most part of the cell which encloses all the other cell organelles. The cell membranecontrols the influx of the nutrients and minerals in and out of the cell.
* Cell Cytoplasm: is the substance/fluid present inside the cell. It is mainly made up of water and protein material. The cytoplasm is the key site wherein all life processes occur.
* Nucleus: is the control center of the cell and one of the most important parts. It contains the genetic material like the DNA and thechromosomes.
* Nucleolus: is the mainly responsible for the protein formation using RNA.
* Nuclear Membrane: is protective sheath that covers the nucleus which allows influx of substances.
* Nucleoplasm: This dense fluid inside the nucleus contains chromatin fibers, which condense to form chromosomes and genes which carry hereditary information.
* Mitochondria: are among thelargest cell organelles also known as the engine house of the cells. Oxygen combines with glucose to form energy (ATP) required for metabolism and cellular activities in this organelle. It is an independent organelle having its own mitochondrial DNA, RNA and ribosomes owing to self replication and duplication.
* Ribosomes: protein synthesis takes place in ribosomes. These organelles could be boundto the endoplasmic reticulum or free-floating in the cytoplasm.
* Lysosomes: it mainly helps phagocytosis and promotes intracellular digestion.
* Centrosome: is an organelle in some plant cells that store starch.
* Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): these form a series of interconnecting flattened tubular tunnels; rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER).* Golgi Apparatus: are a membranous sacs associated chiefly with the endoplasmic reticulum, does that to release the protein chains.
* Vacuoles: their main function is storage.
4. Parts of the plant cell and functions:
* Cell membrane: allow waste material to exit the cell.
* Cell wall: provide structural support and to control the amount of water entering the cell.