The state of a system, at a moment of time is the set of relevant properties which thatsystem has at that time. The environment of a system is a set of elements and their relevant properties, which elements are not part of the system but a change in any of which can produce a change inthe state of the system A concrete system is one at least two of whose elements are object
A closed system is one that has no environment
A system (or environmental) event is a change in one ormore structural properties of the system (or its environment) over a period of time of specified duration; that is, a change in the structural state of the system (or environment).
An abstractsystem is one all of whose elements are concepts Systems may or may not change over time. A system is a set of interrelated elements A static (one-state) system is one to which no events occur
A systemmust be either variety-increasing or variety-decreasing.
Relationships Between Systems and Their Elements
A dynamic (multi-state) system is one to which events occur, whose state changes overtime
A homeostatic system is a static system whose elements and environment are dynamic.
To learn is to increase one's efficiency in the pursuit of a goal under unchanging conditions.Adaptation and Learning
A reaction of a system is a system event for which another event that occurs to the same system or its environment is sufficient A response of a system is a system eventfor which another event that occurs to the same system or to its environment is necessary but not sufficient; that is, a system event produced by another system or environmental event (the stimulus). Anad of a, system is a system event for the occurrence of which no change in the system's environment is either n.ecessary or sufficient.
A state-maintaining system is one that (1) can react in...