Ecology

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F O U N D AT I O N S O F C O N T E M P O R A R Y E N V I R O N M E N TA L S T U D I E S

Ecology and Ecosystem Conservation
Oswald J. Schmitz

About Island Press Island Press is the only nonprofit organization in the United States whose principal purpose is the publication of books on environmental issues and natural resource management. We provide solutions-oriented information toprofessionals, public officials, business and community leaders, and concerned citizens who are shaping responses to environmental problems. Since 1984, Island Press has been the leading provider of timely and practical books that take a multidisciplinary approach to critical environmental concerns. Our growing list of titles reflects our commitment to bringing the best of an expanding body of literature tothe environmental community throughout North America and the world. Support for Island Press is provided by the Agua Fund, The Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, The Ford Foundation, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, The Joyce Foundation, Kendeda Sustainability Fund of the Tides Foundation, The Forrest & Frances Lattner Foundation, The Henry Luce Foundation,The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, The Marisla Foundation, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, The Curtis and Edith Munson Foundation, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, Oak Foundation, The Overbrook Foundation, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Wallace Global Fund, The Winslow Foundation, and other generous donors. The opinions expressedin this book are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of these foundations.

Ecology and Ecosystem Conservation

Foundations of Contemporary Environmental Studies James Gustave Speth, editor Global Environmental Governance by James Gustave Speth and Peter M. Haas Ecology and Ecosystem Conservation by Oswald J. Schmitz Forthcoming: Environmental Economics byNathaniel Keohane and Sheila Olmstead Nature and Human Nature by Stephen Kellert Environmental Policy and Law by Daniel Esty and Douglas Kysar Environmental Health by John Wargo

ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEM CONSERVATION
Oswald J. Schmitz
Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

washington • cove lo • london

For Coulter, Zachary, and Cameron. This is my effort to give them abright environmental future.

Copyright © 2007 Oswald J. Schmitz All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher: Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20009, USA. Island Press is a trademark of The Center for ResourceEconomics. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Schmitz, Oswald J. Ecology and ecosystem conservation / by Oswald J. Schmitz. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN-13: 978-1-59726-048-0 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-59726-048-7 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Ecology. 2. Biodiversity conservation. I.Title. qh541.s325 2007 577—dc22 2006035637 Printed on recycled, acid-free paperManufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Table of Contents
Preface ix

Chapter 1: Ecosystem Conservation: The Need for Ecological Science 1 Chapter 2: The Science of Ecology 6 What is Is Ecology? 7 Resolving Ecological Complexity 7 Life as a Game 15 Ecological Science: Gaining Reliable Knowledge about Ecosystems. 20 Chapter 3: Climate—Template for Global Biodiversity ThePhysics Underlying Life on Earth 26 Ecosystem Types 28 Coping With with Climate 29 Climate-Space 35 Effects of Global Climate Change 36 26

Chapter 4: Ecological Limits and the Size of Populations Simple Population Growth 46 Ecological Balance and Carrying Capacity 49 Competitors and Predators 54 Weather 55 Carrying Capacity and Population Overabundance 57 Chapter 5:Viability of Threatened...
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