Boys tend to play outside, in large groups that are hierarchically structured. Their
groups have a leader who tells others what to do and how to do it, and resists doing what
otherboys propose. It is by giving orders that high status is negotiated. Another way boys
achieve status is to take centre stage by telling stories and jokes, and by challenging the
stories and jokes ofothers. Boys’ games have winners and losers and elaborate systems of
rules that are frequently the subjects of arguments. Finally, boys are frequently heard to
boast about their skills, likes andpossessions, and argue about who is best at what.
Girls, on the other hand, play in small groups or pairs. The centre of a girl’s social
life is her best friend. Within the group, intimacy is key:differentiation is measured by
relative closeness. In their most frequent games, such as jump rope and hopscotch,
everyone gets a turn. Many of their activities (such as playing with dolls) do nothave
winners or losers. Although some girls are certainly more skilled than others, girls are
expected not to boast about it, or show that they think they are better than the others. Girls
don’t giveorders: they express their preferences as suggestions, and suggestions are likely
to be accepted.
1. Answer the following questions using your own words: (2 points; 1 point each)
1. Whatdo boys frequently argue about?
Telling stories and jokes, and by challenging.
2. Why does everybody get a turn in girls’ games?
In their most frequent games, such as jump rope and hopscotch,everyone gets a turn.
2. Are the following statements true or false? (1 point)
1. Boys often boast about their abilities:__ _ false_________________
2. Girls’ activities are highly competitive: ___true ________________
3. Choose a, b or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct: (2 points)
1. Boys gain leadership by
a. caring and sharing
b. voting democratically