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ENGLISH GRAMMAR REVIEW BOOKLET

PARTS OF SPEECH
Words and phrases in the English language can be categorized into different groups depending on their function in a sentence. We will look at the following categories:

Verbs adverbs nouns pronouns adjectives

VERBS are words that express an action or state of being.
Robert works very hard every day. (action) He is tired. (state ofbeing)

PRACTICE
A verb can take 6 different forms. Complete the chart with the correct form of the verb.
INFINITIVE TO BE TO TEACH TO WORK TO SAY TO DANCE

SIMPLE FORM be teach
(VSF)

SIMPLE PRESENT am, is, are teach, teaches

SIMPLE PAST was, were taught

PRESENT
PARTICIPLE
(V+ING) being teaching

PAST
PARTICIPLE been taught

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS
Weform the past and past participle form of the regular verbs by adding ed to the verb in simple form (VSF)
Play played work worked

It is necessary to memorize the past and past participle forms of irregular verbs.

Fly flew tell told

AUXILIARIES

There are two kinds of auxiliaries: tense and modal.Tense auxiliaries: BE DO HAVE WILL
*express tense, or time We haven’t met.
He didn’t eat fish

*can be used as principal verbs I do my homework
She is tired.
We have a problem

*change according to the subject and the tense I don’t know. She doesn’t know

*will doesn’t change depending on the subject I won’t go and he won’t go either

MODAL auxiliaries:CAN, SHOULD, MAY, MIGHT, MUST, WOULD,*HAVE TO, ETC.
*help the principal verb convey opinions and I can swim. (ability)
feelings. You have to pay now. (obligation)

*cannot stand alone, they must be followed
by a verb.

*do not change according to the subject. He should try to fix it
AUX VSF

*are followed by VSF or a tense auxiliary You should havetried to fix it.
AUX TENSE AUX

*Although have to is not strictly considered a modal by some grammarians, it will be grouped with them for practical purposes.

Other modal auxiliaries are: shall, ought to, able to, need to.

ALTERNATIVE PHRASES FOR MODAL AUXILIARIES

There are alternative phrases we can use instead of the modal auxiliaries. They express the same meaningand can be used as tools for introducing the modals in class.

Modals Alternative Phrase

She can speak four languages It’s her ability to speak 4 languages.

We can rent a car at the hotel. It’s possible to rent a car hotel.

It may / might rain. I’m not sure. It may / might rain tonight.

You should call a plumber. It’s a good idea to call a plumber.

Jeff has to /must sign the check. It’s necessary for Jeff to sigh the check.

We don’t have to work tomorrow. It isn’t necessary to work tomorrow.

You mustn’t take those documents home. It’s prohibited to take those documents home.

PRACTICE

Indicate if the underlined words are principal verbs or auxiliaries. If they are auxiliaries, indicate what kind they are.

Example: They are listening toa tape.
TA PV

1. Do you have a car? 6. Are you sick?

2. They shouldn’t do that. 7. Were you working at the time?

3. Joan has to finish before noon. 8. Are they going to make it?

4. Fred has been there before. 9. I didn’t do it.

5. Mr. Brown has been working a lot. 10. I wasn’t there.

PRACTICEIdentify the auxiliary and the verb. Indicate what kind of auxiliary it is and the form of the verb.

Example: Do you come here very often?
TAUX VSF

1. That girl shouldn’t be here. 6. This may help you.

2. We have been waiting for ages. 7. That plant needs water.

3. My friends left early. 8. Are you sure you’re paying attention?

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