Eficiencia de procesos

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KAIZEN
Manuel Rincón, M.Sc. November 5th, 2004

Production Methods

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Efficiency
Any production method relies on efficiency – this can be viewed in different ways: Productivity – a measurement of output per unit of the factor used (labour, capital or land)
Total Output Productivity = ------------------Unit of Factor

Technical Efficiency – output produced using the fewestpossible inputs Productive Efficiency – output produced at the lowest possible cost

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Efficiency
Production decisions involve deciding methods for new production runs and analysis of existing methods. Decisions may include:
Substitute machinery for labour? Use of new technology? Organisation of the production layout? Change of production method?

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Production Methods
Whilstall output Agriculturecan be classed as production, tends production different to be very land more methods may be appropriate for different intensive – products or services. efficiency could be measured in terms of output per acre/hectare

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Production Methods
As technology and analysis of production methodology has improved, methods have changed dramatically – what used to be labourintensive production methods are now capital intensive

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Production Methods
The choice of production method and the factor inputs depends on such things as: • the nature of the product •factor costs •the scale of production

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Production Decisions
Market size and One-Off Order? Segment

Which method?

Type of Product

Mass Market product? Complexity of design

FactorCosts – Batch? Land, Labour and Capital)

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Production Methods
Job Production – One-off production each item might have particular specifications Flow Production – suitable for mass market products that are identical Batch Production – each stage of the production process has an operation completed on it before moving on to the next stage – allows modifications to be made to productsthat otherwise are the same
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Production Methods
Which is more efficient?
Operation 1

2

3

4

5 6 7

This?

Finished Product

11

10

9

8
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Production Methods
Or this? 1a
Operation 1

1b 2a

1c 2b 3c

1d 2c 3d 4
Finished product

3a

3b

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Production Methods
Or This?

Cell 1

Cell 2

Cell 3

Finished Product

FinishedProduct

Finished Product
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Production Methods
Answer – it could be any of them! The design of the production space can influence:
Output levels Factor use Efficiency Cost levels Quality assurance procedures

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Kaizen (Continuous Improvement)

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Kaizen (Continuous Improvement)
Japanese Concept – not made redundant by the decline of the Japanese economy whichmay be due to other institutional factors! Focus on gradual and continuous improvement A whole business philosophy Importance of EVERYONE buying into the concept and the vision

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Kaizen
Great attention paid to customer requirements and needs. •Efficient stock control methods help reduce costs and improve cash-flow

•Flexible working practices and empowerment –

help increaseefficiency, reduce costs and improve motivation

•Leadership seen as vital. Ability to communicate a clear vision, take people along with the vision and to think about where the company needs to be in 5, 10, 15 and 20 years time •Fundamental principles – often characterised as ‘lean production’ – reducing waste, zero defects high quality control measures at all stages.

•Punctuality in all aspects –delivery, supply, manufacture etc

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Quality Assurance
Six Sigma Methodology Coined by Motorola Engineer Bill Smith

Now a major influence on production methods and quality assurance Data and statistical driven approach to eliminate defects in production Aims to improve processes and reduce variations in quality Necessitates organisational change, training and planning

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