Cities: Capital--Cairo (pop. estimated at 16 million). Other cities--Alexandria (6 million), People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Egyptian(s).
Population (July 2007 est.): 80,335,036.
Annual population growth rate (2007 est.): 1.72%.
Ethnic groups: Egyptian, Bedouin Arab, Nubian.Religions: Muslim 90%, Coptic Christian 9%, other Christian 1%.
Languages: Arabic (official), English, French.
Education: Years compulsory--ages 6-15. Literacy--total adult 58%.
Health: Infant mortalityrate (2006 est.)--31.33 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy(2006 est.)--71 years.
Branches: Executive--president,prime minister, cabinet. Legislative--People's Assembly (444 elected and 10 presidentially appointed members; an additional 64 seats for women were created in 2009), and Shura (consultative) Council (176elected members, 88 presidentially appointed). Judicial--Supreme Constitutional Court.
Administrative subdivisions: 29 governorates.
Principal political parties: National Democratic Party(ruling). Principal opposition parties--New Wafd Party, Al Ghad Party, Democratic Front Party, National Progressive Unionist Grouping (Tagammau), and Nasserite Party.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
GDP(FY 2009 est.): $188 billion.
Annual growth rate (FY 2009 est.): 4.7%.
Per capita GDP (PPP, FY 2009 est.): $5,650.
Natural resources: Petroleum and natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese,limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc.
Agriculture: Products--cotton, rice, onions, beans, citrus fruits, wheat, corn, barley, sugar.
Industry: Types--food processing, textiles, chemicals,petrochemicals, construction, light manufacturing, iron and steel products, aluminum, cement, military equipment.
Trade (FY 2009): Exports--$25.2 billion: petroleum, clothing and textiles, cotton,...