Esp. C. Antonio Montoya H. and Esp. Juan Fdo. Montoya H.
Exercises taken from “English Grammar in Use”. By Raymond Murphy. CUP. Adapted by CAMH and JFMH
I. COULD HAVE ( + participle)
* Use COULD HAVE + participle for past situations:
1. I am so tired. I could sleep for a week. (now)
2. I was so tired. I could have slept for a week. (past)
*Most often, we use COULD HAVE + participle for things which were possible but did NOT happen:
1. Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York? You could have stayed with me. (= you had the opportunity to stay with me but you didn’t).
2. Jack fell off a ladder yesterday but he’s all right. He’s lucky – he could have hurt himself badly. (= but he didn’t hurt himself).
3. Thesituation was bad but it could have been worse.
COMPLETE THE SENTENCES. USE COULD OR COULD HAVE + A SUITABLE VERB.
1. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. We could go to the cinema.
2. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday.
B: Why did you stay at home? You ___________________ to the cinema.
3. A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. You____________ for it.
B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement.
4. A: Did you go to the concert last night?
B: No. We ____________________ but we decided not to.
5. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow?
B: Well, I ___________________ to your house if you like.
II. MUST HAVE (+ participle) and CAN´T HAVE (+ participle)
We use MUST and CAN for the present. For the past,we use MUST HAVE + participle and CAN´T HAVE + participle. Study this example:
“George is outside his friends´ house. He has rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered. They must have gone out. (Otherwise they would have answered.”
1. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. I must have been asleep.
2. I’ve lost one of my gloves. I must have dropped it somewhere.
3. Jane walked pastme without speaking. She can’t have seen me.
4. Tom walked straight into a wall. He can’t have been looking where he was going.
* COULDN´T HAVE…..is possible instead of CAN´T HAVE…
1. She can’t have seen me = She couldn’t have seen me.
2. Tom can’t have been looking = Tom couldn’t have been looking.
READ THE SITUATIONS AND USE THE WORDS IN BRACKETS TO WRITE SENTENCES WITHMUST HAVE AND CAN´T HAVE.
-The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. (I-asleep)
-I must have been asleep.
1. The jacket you bought is very good quality. (it-very expensive)
2. I can’t find my umbrella. (I-leave it in the restaurant last night)
3. Don passedthe exam without studying for it. (the exam-very difficult)
4. She knew everything about our plans. (she-listen-to our conversation)
5. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. (she-understand-what I said)__________________________________________________________________
6. When I woke up this morning, the light was on. (I-forget-to turn it off)
7. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. (the driver-see-the red light)
8. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door.(neighbors-party). ____________________________________________________________
III. MAY HAVE + participle and MIGHT HAVE + participle
For the past, we use MAY HAVE + participle and MIGHT HAVE + participle.
1. A: I wonder why Kate didn’t answer the phone.
B: She may have been asleep. (= Perhaps she was sleep)
2. A: I can’t find my bag anywhere.
B: You might have left...