Titanium is nonmagnetic and has good heat-transfer properties. Its coefficient of thermal expansion is somewhat lower than that of steels and less than half that of aluminum.
Titanium can be passivated, and thereby exhibit a high degree of immunity to attack by most mineral acids and chlorides.
Due to excellent resistance to sea water, it is used to makepropeller shafts and rigging and in the heat exchangers of desalination plants and in heater-chillers for salt water aquariums. Titanium is an important pigment for industrial, domestic and artistic applications, as it is extremely opaque and sunfast.
Soft and able to be elongated without breaking, vanadium in its pure form is a bright white metal.
While vanadium--abbreviatedchemically as V--has 11 isotopes, it is naturally found as a mixture of two main isotopes, 51V (99.76 percent) and 50V (0.24 percent).
Steel production accounts for more than 80 percent of the commercial use of vanadium. Vanadium pentoxide is used as a chemical catalyst or in ceramics.
The metal is a lustous steel-gray color which takes a high polish. It is hardand resistant to corrosion. Chromium has a high melting point, stable crystalline structure, and moderate thermal expansion.
Chromium is used to harden steel. It is a component of stainless steel and many other alloys. The metal is commonly used for plating to produce a shiny, hard surface that is resistant to corrosion. Chromium is used as a catalyst. It is added to glass to produce anemerald green color.
Manganese is a moderately active metal. It combines slowly with oxygen in the air to form manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ). At higher temperatures, it reacts more rapidly. It may even burn, giving off a bright white light. Manganese reacts slowly with cold water, but more rapidly with hot water or steam. It dissolves in most acids with the release of hydrogengas.
Up to 90 percent of all manganese produced is made into steel alloys.
Another common alloy of manganese is silicomanganese. It contains manganese, silicon, and carbon in addition to iron. It is used for structural components and in springs
It is found in nature as the metal only in meteorites and in very rare circumstances where iron minerals have been reducedby environmental factors.
In absolutely dry air, it does not rust.
Some of the most common uses of iron in homes is in the form of wrought iron and cast iron. This is because it has more resistance towards rust formation, and at the same time it can be molded very easily.
The main functions of iron include transportation of oxygen and execution of various metabolic processes. Iron is acomponent of hemoglobin present in the red blood cells.
Cobalt is ductile, meaning it can easily be drawn into wires; but compared with other metals it has only moderate malleability.
It is a lustrous, bluish-white metal that is both hard and brittle.
* Cobalt is used in making jet engine and gas turbine parts, because cobalt is very resistant to corrosion anddamage, even at high temperature.
* Cobalt alloyed with chromium and tungsten is used in making high-speed cutting tools.
Compared to nickel alloys, commercially pure nickel has high electrical conductivity, a high Curie temperature and good magnetostrictive properties. Nickel also has good thermal conductivity. This means it can be used for heat exchangers incorrosive environments.
* Nickel is used in many products some of you may use everyday including electric guitar strings, magnets and rechargeable batteries. The magnetic properties of nickel actually make it very important for use in computer hard drives.
* Nickel is added to a very important metal alloy- stainless steel. Stainless steel has numerous applications. It is used in cookware,...