Elt methods

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ELT METHODS
METHODS AND APPROACHES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING
IN BRIEF
Gültekin Boran (Ph. D) Gazi University, Ankara
gboran@gazi.edu.tr

Abbreviations:
T: Teacher
Sts: Students
L1: First Language, Mother Tongue
L2: Second Language, The language the students aim to learn

THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD (GTM)

1. Learning Theory: Deductive learning is essential. First, the teacher givesrules explicitly then the rules are reinforced with examples and exercises.

2. Language Theory: Language is for understanding the literature. Translation is the way to learn the language. Oral communication is not primarily important. Written language is superior to spoken language. Students also learn the structure of their own native language. Those who study a foreign language become morecultured and intellectual.

3. Culture: Culture is limited to literature and fine arts.

4. Teachers' Role: Teacher is the strict authority. Classes are teacher centred.

5. Students' Role: Students are the passive receivers of the new information. The teacher starts the activities and directs them. Students are supposed to memorise the rules and the new vocabulary with their meanings in theirnative language.

6. Interactions: Very often “Teacher –Student” interactions occur. Rarely “Student – Student” interactions also occur.

7. Vocabulary Teaching: The most common vocabulary teaching technique is “the memorisation of long lists of vocabulary with their equivalents in the students’ native language. Other techniques are
-Teaching “cognates” (i.e., “cinema –sinema”,“theatre – tiyatro” ..., etc).
- Using synonyms and antonyms

8. Grammar Teaching: The teaching of grammar is deductive. The teacher introduces the rules explicitly and wants the students to apply these rules to new examples in exercises. Students are supposed to memorise the rules. In order to explain the rules, the teacher uses comparison and contract between the students’ native languagegrammar and target language grammar. Translation is a common way to clarify the meanings of the new grammar patterns in the target language.

9. Materials: Texts from the target language literature are used. The teacher may either write the text or use an authentic literary text.

10. Syllabus: Structural syllabus (i.e., list of structures to be taught during the course) is used. The order ofstructures starts from the easiest

11. Role of L1: L1 (i.e., students’ native language) has an important function in teaching vocabulary and grammar. Since oral communication in the target language is not important, classroom instructions are given in L1.

12. Evaluation: Translation is an important technique to test students’ progress in the target language. In addition, “fill-in-the-blank”type test items are also used. Synonyms, antonyms, and cognates can be asked to test vocabulary in formal tests. Reading passages and comprehension questions about the passages can also take place in tests as the reading section.

13. Goals and Objectives: Among the goals are to teach translation, to read and understand literary texts in the target language, to make students aware of their nativelanguage structure and vocabulary, and to improve students’ mental capacities with grammar exercises.

14. Error Correction: The teacher corrects the errors strictly. Errors are not tolerated. Accuracy is emphasised strictly. Accuracy means grammatical correctness.

15. Student's Feelings: There is no information about how GTM deals with students’ feelings. V Therefore, we cannot considerthis method as a humanistic approach.

16. Techniques:

1. Translation of a Literary Passage: Students translate a passage from the target language into their native language. The passage provides the focus for several classes: vocabulary and grammatical structures in the passage are studied in the following lessons.

2. Reading Comprehension Questions: Students answer questions in the...
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