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Anime is commonly defined as animation originating in Japan. (アニメ?, an abbreviated pronunciation in Japanese of "animation", pronounced [anime] ( listen) in Japanese, but typically /ˈænɨmeɪ/ (listen) or /ˈænɨmə/ in English.) The definition sometimes changes depending on the context.[1] In English-speaking countries, anime is also referred to as "Japanese animation".[2]
While the earliestknown Japanese animation dates to 1917,[3] and many original Japanese cartoons were produced in the ensuing decades, the characteristic anime style developed in the 1960s—notably with the work of OsamuTezuka—and became known outside Japan in the 1980s.
Anime, like manga, has a large audience in Japan and recognition throughout the world. Distributors can release anime via television broadcasts,directly to video, or theatrically, as well as online.
Both hand-drawn and computer-animated anime exist. It is used in television series, films, video, video games, commercials, and internet-basedreleases, and represents most, if not all, genres of fiction. Anime gained early[when?] popularity in East and Southeast Asia and also attained popularity in various communities throughout theworld.[citation needed]
Anime began at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques also pioneered in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia.[4] Theoldest known anime in existence first screened in 1917 – a two-minute clip of a samurai trying to test a new sword on his target, only to suffer defeat.[5][6] Early pioneers included Shimokawa Oten,Jun'ichi Kouchi, and Seitarō Kitayama.[7]
By the 1930s animation became an alternative format of storytelling to the live-action industry in Japan. But it suffered competition from foreign producersand many animators, such as Noburō Ōfuji and Yasuji Murata still worked in cheaper cutout not cel animation, although with masterful results.[8] Other creators, such as Kenzō Masaoka and Mitsuyo Seo,...
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