Energía renovable fuel cells

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Designing and Building Fuel Cells
Colleen Spiegel

New York

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Spiegel, Colleen. Designing and building fuel cells / Colleen Spiegel.—1st ed. p. cm. ISBN 0-07-148977-0 (alk. paper) 1. Fuel cells—Design and construction. I.Title. TK2931.S65 2007 621.31 2429—dc22 2007007508 McGraw-Hill books are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please write to the Director of Special Sales, Professional Publishing, McGraw-Hill, Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121-2298. Or contact your local bookstore. Designing and BuildingFuel Cells Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of publisher. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC DOC 0 1 9 8 7ISBN-13: 978-0-07-148977-5 ISBN-10: 0-07-148977-0 Sponsoring Editors Kenneth P. McCoombs Larry Hagar Editorial Supervisor Jody McKenzie Project Manager Vastavikta Sharma, International Typesetting and Composition Acquisitions Coordinator Laura Hahn Copy Editor Michael McGee Proofreader Mona Mehra Indexer Steve Ingle Production Supervisor George Anderson Composition International Typesetting andComposition Illustration International Typesetting and Composition Art Director, Cover Jeff Weeks Cover Designer Libby Pisacreta

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Contents

Foreword

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Chapter 1. An Introduction to Fuel Cells
1.1 What Is a Fuel Cell? 1.1.1 Comparison with batteries 1.1.2 Comparison with heat engine 1.2 Why Do We Need Fuel Cells? 1.2.1 Portable sector 1.2.2 Transportation sector 1.2.3 Stationary sector 1.3 Historyof Fuel Cells 1.3.1 PEM fuel cells 1.3.2 Solid oxide fuel cells 1.3.3 Molten carbonate fuel cells 1.3.4 Phosphoric acid fuel cells 1.3.5 Alkali fuel cells 1.4 How Do Fuel Cells Work? Chapter Summary Problems Bibliography

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Chapter 2. Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy
2.1 Characteristics of Hydrogen 2.1.1 Safety aspects of hydrogen as a fuel 2.2World Energy Demand 2.3 Development of the Hydrogen Economy 2.4 Hydrogen Production, Distribution, and Storage 2.4.1 Technologies for hydrogen production 2.4.2 Technologies for hydrogen storage 2.4.3 Worldwide hydrogen refueling stations

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Contents

2.5 Investment of Hydrogen Infrastructure 2.5.1 Government support 2.5.2 Long-term projections of hydrogenuse 2.5.3 Key players in hydrogen R&D Chapter Summary Problems Bibliography

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Chapter 3. Fuel Cell Types
3.1 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) 3.2 Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFCs) 3.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs) 3.4 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) 3.5 Molten-Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs) 3.6 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) 3.7 Zinc Air Fuel Cells (ZAFCs)3.8 Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cells (PCFCs) 3.9 Biological Fuel Cells (BFCs) Chapter Summary Problems Bibliography

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Chapter 4. Fuel Cell Applications
4.1 Portable Power 4.2 Backup Power 4.2.1 Basic electrolyzer calculations 4.3 Transportation Applications 4.3.1 Automobiles 4.3.2 Buses 4.3.3 Utility vehicles 4.3.4 Scooters and bicycles 4.4 Stationary...
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