Anne, the first queen of Great Britain
Queen Anne (6 February 1665 –1 August 1714) ascended the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding her brother-in-law and cousin, William III of England and II of Scotland. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union 1707, England and Scotland were united as a single sovereign state,the Kingdom of Great Britain. Anne became its first sovereign, while continuing to hold the separate crown of Queen of Ireland and the title of Queen France. Therefore she was, technically, the last Queen of England and the last Queen of Scots. Anne reigned for twelve years until her death in August 1714. Queen Anne's life was marked by many crises, both personal and relating to succession of theCrown and religious polarization. Anne was the last monarch of the House of Stuart because she died without surviving children. She was succeeded by her second cousin, George I, of the House of Hanover.
William III died on 8 March 1702 and Anne was crowned Queen on 23 April 1702. She was immediately popular. Almost as soon as she succeeded to the throne, Anne became embroiled in the War of theSpanish Succession. This war, in which England supported the claim of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, to succeed to the Spanish Throne, would continue until the last years of Anne's reign and dominated both foreign and domestic policy.
Anne's husband, Prince George of Denmark, died in October 1708. Anne was devastated by the loss of her husband, and the event proved a turning point in herrelationship with her old friend, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. The Duchess arrived at Windsor shortly after George had died, and forced the Queen to leave the castle. Anne pleaded to be left alone, and resented the Duchess for insisting that the grieving Queen be attended at all times.
The Whigs used the Prince's death to their own advantage. With Whigs now dominant in parliament, and Anneover bowed by the loss of her husband, they forced her to accept the Junto leaders Lord Somers and Lord Wharton into the cabinet.
Anne was rendered unable to speak by a stroke on 30 July 1714. She died of suppressed gout, ending in erysipelas, on 1 August 1714. Pursuant to the Act of Settlement 1701, the crown was settled on George as Elector Sophia's heir, with the possible Catholic claimants,including Anne's half-brother James Francis Edward Stuart. However, the Elector of Hanover's accession was relatively stable: Jacobite risings were failed.
George I of Great Britain.
George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 until his death. George was born in Lower Saxony. At the age of 54, after the death of Queen Anne of GreatBritain, George ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover . Although over fifty Catholics bore closer blood relationships to Anne, the Act of Settlement 1701 prohibited Catholics from inheriting the British throne. George, however, was Anne's closest living Protestant relative. In reaction, the Jacobites attempted to depose George and replace him with Anne's Catholichalf-brother, James Francis Edward Stuart, but their attempts failed.
During George's reign the powers of the monarchy diminished and Britain began a transition to the modern system of cabinet government led by a prime minister. George died on a trip to his native Hanover, where he was buried.
Accession in Great Britain: Though both England and Scotland recognised Anne as their Queen, only theEnglish Parliament had settled on Sophia, Elector of Hanover, as the heir. The Estates of Scotland had not yet formally settled the question over who would succeed to the Scottish throne on Anne's death. In 1703 the Estates declared that their selection for Queen Anne's successor would not be the same individual as the successor to the English throne. Eventually, in 1707, both Parliaments...