➢ Geographical aspect.
➢ Political situation.
➢ Social situation.
➢ Culture and stereotypes.
➢ The main cities and monuments.
➢ Important people of the country.
England has the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain plus a series ofsmall islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight . England is bordered to the north of Scotland and west to Wales Is closer to continental Europe than anywhere else in the rest of Britain, separated from France only by a 24 - statute miles (52 kilometers or 28.1 nautical miles ) from the sea. The Channel Tunnel near Folkestone , England, linked directly to continental Europe . English / Frenchborder is halfway along the tunnel.
The north with a chain of mountains, the Pennines , Lake District. The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees Exe line
The largest natural port of England is in Poole in the south-central coast.
England has a temperate climate , with abundant rainfall throughout the year, althoughthe seasons are quite variable in temperature. The highest temperature recorded in England is 38.5 ° C.The lowest temperature recorded in England is -26.1 ° C.
The Severn is the longest river in English, with the Thames
• LARGE CITIES
(in alphabetical order):
▪ Kingston upon Hull
▪ Newcastle upon Tyne
An English fleet under Francis Drake defeated an invading Spanish Armada during the Elizabethan period. Competing with Spain, the first English colony in the Americas was founded byexplorer Walter Raleigh in 1585 and named Virginia. The nature of the island was changed, when the Stuart King of Scotland, from a kingdom which was previously a long time rival, inherited the throne of England—creating a personal union under James I in 1603.
Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, there was an English Civil War between the supporters of Parliament and thoseof king Charles I. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced with the Commonwealth. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in 1653. After Cromwell's death, and his son Richard's resignation as Lord Protector, Charles II was invited to return as monarch in 1660 with the Restoration.
The Great Fire of London in1666 gutted the capital but it was rebuilt shortly after. In Parliament two factions had emerged—the Tories and Whigs. The former were royalists while the latter were classical liberals. Though the Tories initially supported Catholic king James II, some of them, along with the Whigs deposed him at the Revolution of 1688 and invited Dutch prince William III to become monarch.
In 1825 the world'sfirst permanent steam locomotive-hauled passenger railway.
During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories. During the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon Bonaparte planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelsonand on land by the Duke of Wellington.
London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era. Power shifts in east-central Europe led to World War I; over 800 thousand English soldiers died in trenches fighting for the United Kingdom as part of the Allies. Two decades later, in World War II, the United Kingdom again fought for the Allies. Following...