Englihs grammar 1

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Exceptions for Conditional Sentence

So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the context, however, which tense to use. So sometimes it's possible for example that in an IF Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or Present Perfect.

Conditional Sentences Type I (likely)
Condition refers to: | IF Clause |Main Clause |
future action | Simple Present | If the book is interesting, … | Future I | …I will buy it. |
| | | Imperative | …buy it. |
| | | Modal Auxiliary | …you can buy it. |
action going on now | Present Progressive | If he is snoring, … | Future I | …I will wake him up. |
| | | Imperative | …wake him up. |
| | | Modal Auxiliary | …you can wake him up. |
finishedaction | Present Perfect | If he has moved into his new flat, … | Future I | …we will visit him. |
| | | Imperative | …visit him. |
| | | Modal Auxiliary | …we can visit him. |
improbable action | should + Infinitive | If she should win this race, … | Future I | …I will congratulate her. |
| | | Imperative | …congratulate her. |
| | | Modal Auxiliary | …we can congratulateher. |
present facts | Simple Present | If he gets what he wants, … | Simple Present | …he is very nice. |

Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely)

Condition refers to: | IF Clause | Main Clause |
present / future event | Simple Past | If I had a lot of money, … | Conditional I | …I would travel around the world. |
consequence in the past | Simple Past | If I knew him, … | ConditionalII | …I would have said hello. |

Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible)

Condition refers to: | IF Clause | Main Clause |
present | Past Perfect | If I had known it, … | Conditional I | …I would not be here now. |
past | Past Perfect | If he had learned for the test, … | Conditional II | …he would not have failed it. |

Table of English Tenses

Type | Form | Use | Signal Words |Simple Present | A: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak? | * action in the present taking place once, never or several times * facts * actions taking place one after another * action set by a timetable or schedule | always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
if sentences type I (If I talk, …) |
Present Progressive | A: He is speaking.
N: Heis not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking? | * action taking place in the moment of speaking * action taking place only for a limited period of time * action arranged for the future | at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now |
Simple Past | A: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak? | * action in the past taking place once, never or several times *actions taking place one after another * action taking place in the middle of another action | yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if sentence type II (If I talked, …) |
Past Progressive | A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking? | * action going on at a certain time in the past * actions taking place at the same time * action in the pastthat is interrupted by another action | when, while, as long as |
Present Perfect Simple | A: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken? | * putting emphasis on the result * action that is still going on * action that stopped recently * finished action that has an influence on the present * action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment ofspeaking | already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now |
Present Perfect Progressive | A: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking? | * putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result) * action that recently stopped or is still going on * finished action that influenced the present | all day, for 4 years, since 1993,...
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