English history romano-britain

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Administration: Provinces and Towns

Provincial government

Under the Roman Empire, administration of peaceful provinces was ultimately the remit of the Senate, but those, like Britain, that required permanent garrisons were placed under the Emperor's control. In practice imperial provinces were run by resident governors who were members of the Senate and had held the consulship. These menwere carefully selected often having strong records of military success and administrative ability. In Britain, a governor's role was primarily military, but numerous other tasks were also his responsibility such as maintaining diplomatic relations with local client kings, building roads, ensuring the public courier system functioned, supervising the civitates and acting as a judge in importantlegal cases. When not campaigning he would travel the province hearing complaints and recruiting new troops.
To assist him in legal matters he had an adviser, the legatus iuridicus, and those in Britain appear to have been distinguished lawyers perhaps because of the challenge of incorporating tribes into the imperial system and devising a workable method of taxing them. Financial administration wasdealt with by a procurator with junior posts for each tax-raising power. Each legion in Britain had a commander who answered to the governor and in time of war probably directly ruled troublesome districts. Each of these commands carried a tour of duty of two to three years in different provinces. Below these posts was a network of administrative managers covering intelligence gathering, sendingreports to Rome, organising military supplies and dealing with prisoners. A staff of seconded soldiers provided clerical services.
Colchester was probably the earliest capital of Roman Britain, but it was soon eclipsed by London with its strong mercantile connections.

Provincial subdivisions

|  |  |  | | |Britannia |
| || | | |43-early 3rd c. |
| | | | | |Capital Camulodunum |
| | | | | |(43-c.65), |
| | | | | |then Londinium |
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Town and country

During their occupation of Britain the Romans founded a number ofimportant settlements, many of which still survive.
Cities and towns which have Roman origins, or were extensively developed by them, include: (with their Latin names in brackets)
• Alcester - (Alauna)
• Bath - (Aquae Sulis)
• Caerleon - (Isca Augusta)
• Caernarfon - (Segontium)
• Caerwent - (Venta Silurum)
• Canterbury - (Durovernum Cantiacorum)
• Carlisle -(Luguvalium)
• Carmarthen - (Moridunum)
• Chester - (Deva Victrix)
• Chichester - (Noviomagus Regnorum meaning 'new field' or new clearing of the Regni[27]
• Cirencester - (Corinium)
• Colchester - (Camulodunum)
• Corbridge - (Coria)
• Dorchester - (Durnovaria)
• Dover - (Portus Dubris)
• Exeter - (Isca Dumnoniorum)
• Gloucester - (Glevum)
•...
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