English second language

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UNIT 1
THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE TEACHING. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE. THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACHES.
OUTLINE 1. INTRODUCTION. 1.1. Aims of the unit. 1.2. Notes on bibliography. 2. THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE TEACHING. 3. A HISTORY OF THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE. 3.1. Key issues: approaches vs. methods. 3.2. Up to the eighteenth century: Thespread of English language teaching in Europe. 3.2.1. Ancient Times. 3.2.2. Europe in Early Times. The decline of Latin. 3.3. The nineteenth century: Approaches and Methods on language teaching. 3.3.1. The Grammar-Translation method. 3.3.2. Individual reformers: Marcel, Prendergast and Gouin. 3.3.3. The Reform Movement: Sweet, Viëtor and Passy. The role of phonetics. 3.3.4. The Direct Method.Natural methods from Montaigne to Berlitz. 3.4. The twentieth century: A communicative approach. 3.4.1. The Communicative Language Teaching Approach. 3.4.2. The influence of sociology and psychology on language teaching. 3.4.3. Approaches and theories of language and language learning. 3.4.3.1. Approaches of language and language learning. 3.4.3.2. Influential theories on language learning. 3.4.4.Language teaching methods. 3.4.4.1. The Oral Approach and Situational Language teaching method. 3.4.4.2. The Audiolingual method. 3.4.4.3. Total Physical Response. 3.4.4.4. The Silent Way. 3.4.4.5. Community Language Learning. 3.4.4.6. Suggestopedia. 4. NEW DIRECTIONS ON LANGUAGE TEACHING. 5. CONCLUSION. 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

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1. INTRODUCTION. 1.1. Aims of the unit. The present work aims toprovide a detailed account of the evolution of language from its origins, as an object of study, to a theory of language teaching . As Albert C. Baugh (1993) states, the basis for an understanding of present-day English and for an enlightened attitude towards questions affecting the language today is a knowledge of its origins. A historical and cultural setting links the nature of language to a theoryof language teaching and a tradition in teaching English as a foreign language from ancient roots to present-day trends. In order to do so, subsequent sections will enable us to become better informed about the different methods, approaches and language acquisition theories on English teaching as a foreign language at different periods, where special attention is paid to present-day communicativeapproaches. For extensive comments, within the framework of different research fields, new directions on language teaching are offered to reflect the learner’s need within the current educational system. In a final section, a conclusion examines the strengths and weaknesses of methods and approaches from a broad perspective. 1.2. Notes on bibliography. Numerous sources have contributed to providean overall basis for the development of the unit. A valuable introduction to the study of language is given by Otto Jespersen, Language: Its Nature, Development and Origin (1922); David Crystal, Linguistics (1985); and Baugh and Cable, A History of the English Language (1993). For a historical overview of the tradition of language teaching, see Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approachesand Methods in Language Teaching (1992) and Howatt, A History of English Language Teaching (1984). Among the many general works that incorporate the teaching of English as a foreign language, see especially and Wilga M. Rivers, Teaching Foreign-Language Skills (1981) and on theories of language acquisition, see Krashen, S. D., and T. D. Terrell, The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in theClassroom (1983). The most complete record of current publications on new directions in language teaching is published by Asociación Española de Lingüística Aplicada (AESLA) and its annual supplements. For a comprehensive overview, see the following collections: Universidad de Alcalá, La Lingüística Aplicada a finales del Siglo XX. Ensayos y propuestas (2001); Universidad de Barcelona, Trabajos...
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