English syntax argumentation

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Clauses and clause hierarchies
There are two main concepts, the concept of matrix clause and the subordinate clause. The matrix clause is coextensive with the whole sentence (they are the same). Thesubordinate is the clause subordinated to the main clause. And that works as a complementiser. Matrix clauses are superordinate to subordinate clauses. And if in a sentence there are two subordinateclauses, the first one will be superordinate to the second one. The complemetizer will have a function.
Matrix clauses are always finite clauses (they contain a tensed verb), whereas subordinateclauses may be finite or nonfinite clauses (to-infinitive, bare infinitive, -ing participle, –ed participle or verbless). That-clauses are frequently finite but if-clauses are always finite.
VerblessClauses can also be called Small Clause. This kind of clauses lack of overt verb, but can be said to contain an implicit form of the verb be).
The rank scale
There are four levels of analyzingsentences. These are:
* Word level
* Phrase level
* Clause level
* Sentence level
Usually the subordinate that-clause is regarded within the VP.
Sentence types
DECLARAIVE SENTENCESStructure: S+P+(DO)+(IO)…
Broadly speaking, they are use to make statements.
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
Usually used to make questions. Yet some can be rhetoric and others may suggest requests ordirectives.
There are two major types:
* Yes/no interrogatives (Inversion of subject with an auxiliary verb)
* Wh-interrogatives (Initial question words starting it a Wh-word)
* Alternativeinterrogatives (The answer to the question is given on the way the question is asked)
IMPERAITVE QUESTIONS
Usually interpreted as directives but also as wishes. They do not normally contain subjects andthe verb is in the base form
EXCLAMATIVE SENTENCES
Formed with an initial wh-word. Used as exclamations or questions
The pragmatics of sentence types
Here, we should mention the distinction...
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