An adjective modifies a noun. It describes the quality, state or action that a noun refers to.
i) Adjectives can come before nouns: a new car
ii) Adjectives can come after verbs such as be, become, seem, look, etc.: that car looks fast
iii) They can be modified by adverbs: a very expensive car
iv) They can be used as complements to a noun: theextras make the car expensive
Most adverbs in English are formed by adding -ly to an Adjective. An adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a Verb; an Adjective; another adverb; a Noun or Noun Phrase; Determiner; a Numeral; a Pronoun; or a Prepositional Phrase and can sometimes be used as a Complement of a Preposition.
ADVERB SPELLING NOTES
i) Adjectives ending -l still take-ly; careful-carefully.
ii) Adjectives ending -y change to -ily; lucky-luckily
iii) Adjectives ending -ble change to -bly; responsible-responsibly
ADVERB OF MANNER
Adverbs of manner modify a verb to describe the way the action is done.
EG: She did the work carefully.
('Carefully' modifies the verb to describe the way the work was done, as opposed to quickly, carelessly, etc..)
ADVERB OFPLACE or LOCATION
Adverbs of place show where the action is done.
EG: They live locally.
ADVERB OF TIME
Adverbs of time show when an action is done, or the duration or frequency.
EG: He did it yesterday. (When)
They are permanently busy. (Duration)
She never does it. (Frequency)
ADVERB OF DEGREE
Adverbs of degree increase or decrease the effect of the verb.
EG: I completely agree with you.(This increases the effect of the verb, whereas 'partially' would decrease it.)
ADVERBS MODIFYING ADJECTIVES
An adjective can be modified by an adverb, which precedes the adjective, except 'enough' which comes after.
EG: That's really good.
It was a terribly difficult time for all of us.
It wasn't good enough. ('Enough' comes after the adjective.)
ADVERBS MODIFYING ADVERBS
An adverb canmodify another. As with adjectives, the adverb precedes the one it is modifying with 'enough' being the exception again.
EG: She did it really well.
He didn't come last night, funnily enough.
ADVERBS MODIFYING NOUNS
Adverbs can modify nouns to indicate time or place.
EG: The concert tomorrow
EG: The room upstairs
ADVERBS MODIFYING NOUN PHRASES
Some adverbs of degree can modify noun phrases.EG: We had quite a good time.
They're such good friends.
Quite; rather; such; what (What a day!) can be used in this way.
ADVERBS MODIFYING DETERMINERS, NUMERALS & PRONOUNS
Adverbs such as almost; nearly; hardly; about, etc., can be used:
EG: Almost everybody came in the end.
3.- Non-defining Relative Clauses
A non-defining relative clause gives extra information about a noun or noun phraseand has commas at both ends:
My sister, who lives in France, is coming to stay with me next week. ('who lives in France' is not essential, which means that I only have one sister and she does not need to be defined by the relative clause)
'Who' and 'whose' are used for people. 'Which' and 'whose' are used for things. 'That' cannot be used in a non-defining relative clause.
4.-SIMPLE FUTURESimple future, form
The 'simple' future is composed of two parts: will / shall + the infinitive without 'to'
Subject | will | infinitive without to |
He | will | leave... |
Affirmative | | |
I | will | go |
I | shall | go |
Negative | | |
They | will not | see |
They | won't | see |
Interrogative | | |
Will | she | ask? |
Interrogative negative || |
Won't | she | take? |
Contractions: | |
I will I'll | We will we'll |
You will you'll | You will you'll |
He,she, will he'll, she'll | They will they'll |
NOTE: The form 'it will' is not normally shortened.
Example: to see, simple future
Affirmative | Negative | Interrogative |
I'll see | I won't see/ | Will I see?/ |
*I will/shall see | I shan't see...