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Bullying behavior may include name calling, verbal or written abuse, exclusion from activities, exclusion from social situations, physical abuse, or coercion.[10][11] Bullies may behave this way tobe perceived as popular or tough or to get attention. They may bully out of jealousy or be acting out because they themselves are bullied.[12]
USA National Center for Education Statistics suggeststhat bullying can be classified into two categories: Direct bullying, and indirect bullying which is also known as social aggression.[1]
Ross states that direct bullying involves a great deal ofphysical aggression such as shoving and poking, throwing things, slapping, choking, punching and kicking, beating, stabbing, pulling hair, scratching, biting, scraping and pinching.[13]
He also suggeststhat social aggression or indirect bullying is characterized by threatening the victim into social isolation. This isolation is achieved through a wide variety of techniques, including spreading gossip,refusing to socialize with the victim, bullying other people who wish to socialize with the victim, and criticizing the victim's manner of dress and other socially-significant markers (including thevictim's race, religion, disability, etc.). Ross[13] outlines other forms of indirect bullying which are more subtle and more likely to be verbal, such as name calling, the silent treatment, arguingothers into submission, manipulation, gossip/false gossip, lies, rumors/false rumors, staring, giggling, laughing at the victim, saying certain words that trigger a reaction from a past event, andmocking. The children's charity Act Against Bullying was set up in 2003 to help children who were victims of this type of bullying by researching and publishing coping skills.
Effects of bullying on thosewho are targeted
The effects of bullying can be serious and even fatal. Unfortunately, it is still a heavily unresearched area.
The link between bullying and school violence has attracted...