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CHAPTER 4 - REFERENCE WORDS
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this chapter is to give students practice in using and understanding reference words.
Why are reference words important?
To avoid repetition, most writers replace repeated words with words of reference. If readers understand this, they can follow what writers write. Reference words are often, but not always, pronouns
Forms of Pronouns|Subject Pronouns |Object Pronouns |Possessive Pronouns |
|I |me |mine |
|you |you |Yours |
|we |Us |Ours |
|he |him |His |
|she |her|Hers |
|It |It |Its |
|they |them |Theirs |


Examples
John gave the money to Jane. He always gave the money to her.
He worked so well that his boss congratulated him.
She baked bread so well that her customers bought exclusively from her.
Ariya is a writer. Sheenjoys writing very much
Siriluck and Cataliya went to Chiangmai last week. They went by plane.

Exercise 4 - 1: Underline the pronouns in the following sentences,.
1. The dog chased its tail and finally caught it.
2. The artist prepared her brushes, and then she used them to paint the picture.
3. Teachers and students agreed that they had the same ideas.
4. Extraction of a wisdom toothcan cause great pain if it is impacted.
5. The doctor removed Mary’s tonsils when she was eight years old.
6. The elephant is kind. It will not hurt anyone if he does not tease it.

Pronoun References
Pronoun references refer to a noun, nouns or a sentence. They are as follows:
1. Personal Pronouns refer to he, she, it, they, you we and so on. These pronouns are used to substitute person orthing.
Example: The janitor found a mobile phone in the hotel toilet and returned it to
the Lost and Found Department.
(It = a mobile phone)
My brother likes to carry his notebook computer while traveling.
(his = my brother)
2. Relative Pronouns refer to who, whom, whose, which and that.
Example: Phonthip was a classmate of Nari’s who wanted to rentthis house.
(who = classmate.)
Tommy is a guy whom she’s been talking about.
(whom = guy)
3. Demonstrative Pronouns are this, that, these and those.
Example: Monthon tried to sneak out of the English classroom.
This was a wrong thing that he did yesterday.
(This = tried to sneak out of the English classroom)
4. Indefinite Pronouns refers to each,both, everyone, few, anyone, and so on.
Example: Her mother bought two CD players. One was given to her eldest
daughter and the other is for her nephew.
(one = one CD player
the other = another CD player)
She has many friends in Chachoengsao and only few live in Chonburi.
(few = friends)
5. Reflexive Pronouns refer to himself, herself, myself and so on.Example: Mom wants to cook herself salad.
(herself = Mom.)
Charles wants to drive by himself.
(himself = Charles)

Exercise 4 –2: Read the following story and indicate what the words in bold print refer to.

Boiled Axe
by Bonnie Carey
A soldier arrived at his quarters in a little village and said to his hostess, "God be with you, old woman. Give me1 a little something to eat, please.The old woman replied, "It2’s out there, brother. The notice is tackled up."
"Are you3 so deaf you can’t understand?" the soldier asked, amazed at her reply.
"You4 may spend the night wherever you wish."
"Oh, you5 old fool. Just wait! I’ll cure you of your deafness."
The soldier went up to her6 with clenched fists. "Serve me a meal."
"But I don’t have anything, brother."
"Surely you have...
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