Enzimas

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  • Publicado : 2 de noviembre de 2011
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Enzymes at work

Rethink Tomorrow...



Contents

1. . 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 . . 4.1

Why use enzymes for industrial processes? the nature of enzymes Chemical reactions under mild conditions Highly specific action Very high reaction rates Numerous enzymes for different tasks industrial enzyme production enzymesfor detergents and personal care Laundry detergents and automatic dishwashing detergents

6 9 9 9 9 9 10 1 12 13 13 13 1 15 15 16 17 17 17 18 18 18

5.2.2 Liming 5.2.3 Bating 5.2.4 Acid bating 5.2.5 Degreasing/fat dispersion 5.2.6 Area expansion 5. forest products 5.3.1 Traditional pulp and paper processing 5.3.2 Amylases for starch modification for paper coatings 5.3.3 Xylanases forbleach boosting 5.3.4 Lipases for pitch control 5.3.5 Esterases for stickies control 5.3.6 Enzymes for deinking 5. animal feed 5.4.1 The use of phytases 5.4.2 NSP-degrading enzymes 5.5 oil and gas drilling 5.6 Biopolymers 5.7 fuel ethanol 5.8 enzymes in organic synthesis – Biocatalysis 5.8.1 Enzymes commonly used for organic synthesis 5.8.2 Enantiomerically pure compounds 6.enzyme applications in the food industry

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4.1.2 The role of detergent enzymes 4.1.3 Enzymes for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and membrane cleaning in the food industry 4.2 5. Personal care enzyme applications in nonfood industries

5.1 textiles 5.1.1 Enzymatic desizing of cotton fabric 5.1.2 Enzymes for denimfinishing 5.1.3 Cellulases for the BioPolishing of cotton fabric 5.1.4 Cellulases for the BioPolishing of lyocell 5.1.5 Enzymes for wool and silk finishing 5.1.6 Scouring with enzymes 5. leather 5.2.1 Soaking

6.1 sweetener production 6.1.1 Enzymes for starch modification 6.1.2 Tailor-made glucose syrups 6.1.3 Processing and enzymology 6.1.4 Sugar processing



6. Baking6.2.1 Flour supplementation 6.2.2 Dough conditioning 6.2.3 The synergistic effects of enzymes 6.2.4 Reduction of acrylamide content in food products 6. dairy products 6.3.1 Cheesemaking 6.3.2 Rennet and rennet substitutes 6.3.3 Cheese ripening 6.3.4 Infant milk formulas 6. Brewing 6.4.1 Mashing 6.4.2 Brewing with barley 6.4.3 General filtration problems 6.4.4 Enzymes for improvingfermentation 6.4.5 Diacetyl control 6.5 distilling – potable alcohol 6.5.1 Starch liquefaction 6.5.2 Starch saccharification 6.5.3 Viscosity reduction – High gravity fermentation 6.6 protein hydrolysis for food processing 6.6.1 Flavor enhancers 6.6.2 Meat extracts 6.6.3 Pet food 6.7 extraction of plant material 6.7.1 Plant cell walls and specific enzyme activities 6.7.2 Fruit juice processing 6.7.3Citrus fruit

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6.7.4 Fruit preparations 6.7.5 Winemaking 6.7.6 Oil extraction 6.8 enzymatic modification of lipids 6.8.1 Enzymatic degumming 6.8.2 Enzymes in simple fat production 6.9 7. 8. 8.1 8.2 9. 9.1 9.2 9.3 Reduction of viscosity in general safety enzyme regulation and quality assuranceDetergent enzymes Food enzymes enzyme origin and function Biochemical synthesis of enzymes How enzymes function Basic enzyme kinetics

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10. a short history of industrial enzymes 11. production microorganisms 1. future prospects – in conclusion 1. glossary 1. literature

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1. Why use enzymes for industrialprocesses?
Many chemical transformation processes used in various industries have inherent drawbacks from a commercial and environmental point of view. Nonspecific reactions may result in poor product yields. High temperatures and/or high pressures needed to drive reactions lead to high energy costs and may require large volumes of cooling water downstream. Harsh and hazardous processes involving high...
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