Enzymes in industry production and aplications

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Enzymes in Industry Edited by W. Aehle

Enzymes in Industry
Production and Applications

Edited by Wolfgang Aehle Third, Completely Revised Edition

Dr. Wolfgang Aehle Genencor – A Danisco Division PO Box 218 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands First Edition 1990 Second, Completely Revised Edition 2004 Third, Completely Revised Edition 2007

All books published by Wiley-VCH are carefullyproduced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statemtents, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate. Library of Congress Card No.: applied for British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A cataloguerecord for this book is available from the British Library. Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek The Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the internet at # 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim All righs reserved (including those of translation into other languages). No partof this book may be reproduced in any form – by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means – nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law. Printed in the Federal Republic of Germay. Printed on acid-freepaper. Typesetting Thomson Digital, Noida Printing betz-druck GmbH, Darmstadt Bookbinding Litges & Dopf Buchbinderei GmbH, Heppenheim Wiley Bicentennial Logo Richard J. Pacifico ISBN 978-3-527-31689-2

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Contents Preface to the Third Edition XV List of Contributors XVII Abbreviations XXIII 1 1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.52.1.6 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 Introduction 1 History 1 Enzyme Nomenclature 4 General Principles of Nomenclature 5 Classification and Numbering of Enzymes 5 Structure of Enzymes 7 Primary Structure 7 Three-Dimensional Structure 7 Quaternary Structure, Folding, and Domains 8 The Ribozyme 11 Enzymes and Molecular Biology 12 Biosynthesis of Enzymes 12 Enzymes and DNA 12 Catalytic Activityof Enzymes 13 Factors Governing Catalytic Activity 15 Temperature 15 Value of pH 16 Activation 16 Inhibition 16 Allostery 18 Biogenic Regulation of Activity 19 Enzyme Assays 21 Reaction Rate as a Measure of Catalytic Activity Definition of Units 21 Absorption Photometry 22 Fluorometry 24 Luminometry 24 Radiometry 25

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Enzymes in Industry. Edited by Wolfgang Aehle Copyright ß 2007 WILEY-VCHVerlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN: 978-3-527-31689-2

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Contents

2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.9 2.2.10 2.2.11 2.2.12 2.2.13 2.2.14 2.2.15 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.1.1 3.2.1.2 3.2.2. 3.2.2.1 3.2.2.2 3.2.2.3 3.2.2.4 3.2.3 3.2.3.1 3.2.3.2 3.2.3.3 3.2.4

Potentiometry 25 Conductometry 26 Calorimetry26 Polarimetry 26 Manometry 26 Viscosimetry 26 Turbidimetry 27 Immobilized Enzymes 27 Electrophoresis 27 Quality Evaluation of Enzyme Preparations 29 Quality Criteria 29 Specific Activity 29 Protein Determination 30 Contaminating Activities 31 Electrophoretic Purity 31 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 32 Performance Test 32 Amino Acid Analysis and Protein Sequence Analysis Stability 33Formulation of Enzyme Preparations 33 General Production Methods 35 Microbial Production 35 Organism and Enzyme Synthesis 35 Strain Improvement 38 Physiological Optimization 39 The Fermentor and its Limitations 42 Process Design 44 Modeling and Optimization 46 Instrumentation and Control 47 Isolation and Purification 48 Preparation of Biological Starting Materials 48 Cell Disruption by Mechanical...
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