Enzymes: A Practical Introduction to Structure, Mechanism, and Data Analysis. Robert A. Copeland Copyright 2000 by Wiley-VCH, Inc. ISBNs: 0-471-35929-7 (Hardback); 0-471-22063-9 (Electronic)
A Practical Introduction to Structure, Mechanism, and Data Analysis
Robert A. Copeland
A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION
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To Clyde Worthen forteaching me all the important lessons: arigato sensei. And to Theodore (Doc) Janner for stoking the ﬁre.
Preface Acknowledgments Preface to the First Edition 1 A Brief History of Enzymology 1.1 Enzymes in Antiquity / 2 1.2 Early Enzymology / 3 1.3 The Development of Mechanistic Enzymology / 4 1.4 Studies of Enzyme Structure / 5 1.5 Enzymology Today / 7 1.6 Summary / 8 References andFurther Reading / 10 2 Chemical Bonds and Reactions in Biochemistry 2.1 Atomic and Molecular Orbitals / 11 2.2 Thermodynamics of Chemical Reactions / 23 2.3 Acid—Base Chemistry / 29 2.4 Noncovalent Interactions in Reversible Binding / 32 2.5 Rates of Chemical Reactions / 35 2.6 Summary / 41 References and Further Reading / 41 3 Structural Components of Enzymes 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 The Amino Acids/ 42 The Peptide Bond / 53 Amino Acid Sequence or Primary Structure / 55 Secondary Structure / 57 Tertiary Structure / 62
xi xiii xv 1
3.6 Subunits and Quaternary Structure / 65 3.7 Cofactors in Enzymes / 68 3.8 Summary / 71 References and Further Reading / 74 4 Protein‒Ligand Binding Equilibria The Equilibrium Dissociation Constant, K / 76 The KineticApproach to Equilibrium / 78 Binding Measurements at Equilibrium / 80 Graphic Analysis of Equilibrium Ligand Binding Data / 88 Equilibrium Binding with Ligand Depletion (Tight Binding Interactions) / 94 4.6 Competition Among Ligands for a Common Binding Site / 95 4.7 Experimental Methods for Measuring Ligand Binding / 96 4.8 Summary / 107 References and Further Reading / 108 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5Kinetics of Single-Substrate Enzyme Reactions 5.1 The Time Course of Enzymatic Reactions / 109 5.2 Effects of Substrate Concentration on Velocity / 111 5.3 The Rapid Equilibrium Model of Enzyme Kinetics / 113 5.4 The Steady State Model of Enzyme Kinetics / 115 5.5 The Signiﬁcance of k and K / 120
5.6 Experimental Measurement of k and K / 124
5.7 Other Linear Transformations of Enzyme...
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