Genetic engineering is the science that studies the manipulation of genes. It is very important because all living things in the planet are made of cells withspecific genes. Genetic engineering has advanced massively in a short period of time with the capability to develop new medicines and with the ability of genetic recombination in various crops, but themost polemic one is cloning. The problem is that not everyone thinks that the advances are beneficial for human beings. The major opponents are religious movements. They disagree with the idea thathumans can make an exact copy of themselves or animals. It is against their beliefs.
The benefits that genetic engineering have given us are focused in various fields. It has improved the field ofagriculture, by improving the capabilities of many plants. Some benefits are the increase in the productivity of photosynthesis; the reduction of the plant's need for fertilizer; and superiorresistance of the plant to salinity, deficiency and viruses.
The most important benefit for humans of genetic engineering is therapy for genes which is the medical cure of a disease in which the imperfectgenes are fixed and substituted or beneficial genes are introduced to combat the virus. However the capabilities of increasing a human´s life span or the capacity of suppression of adverse traits likediseases are also important. It has assisted in the invention of vaccines, medicines and other drugs that need gene modification.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical livingthings by asexual reproduction using copies of DNA from few parts of the organism or cells.
The barriers to genetic modification are moral and ethical matters like the fact that it is interfering withthe God's will and his conception. Also if something goes mistaken genetically, the consequences would be irreparable and severe. Newly presented genetically modified organism may alter food chains....