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Decapitation is one of the oldest methods of execution. By ax or sword, in both cases requires great skill by the executioner, for when this is not an expert in handling it iseasy for implementation be extended based on the repeated attempts to sever the head of the offender, resulting in gruesome scenes. A long and painful agony, on the other hand, are often notaccidental: In England, prior to execution by hanging, beheading with an ax was the method commonly used, as in other European countries like Sweden or Denmark. While in France, Germany, Holland, Persia, Japanand China, the beheading was carried out with a sword. In Islamic countries the use of the sword were also common (currently, beheading is still practiced in Saudi Arabia).

In medieval Spain, wassentenced normal execution by beheading, being beheaded later, once dead, with the aim of showcasing the head to the crowd on the occasion of execution.

In the late eighteenth century in France,the growing rejection to the grisly events in which they became some executions, the incentive to find a more reliable method of decapitation: the guillotine. Earlier, in Germany, the Netherlands,Naples, England and Scotland had already used similar machines at some point the future guillotine, consisting of a heavy blade to descend guides beheaded the accused.

Joseph Ignace Guillotin doctorsand Antoine Louis, along with mechanical craftsman and German Tobias Schmidt, will be the protagonists of the development and implementation of the guillotine in France. And Guillotin proposed the useof a first prototype in 1789. In 1792, Louis changed the blade on the other horizontal at an angle, greater effectiveness in the court:
The Constituent Assembly adopted its use, and the firstexecuted, the same year, was Jacques Pelletier (May 27, 1792), convicted of armed robbery. Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette were guillotined, respectively, on 21 January and 16 October 1973....
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