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Study Guide

Unit 1 – Cellular – Tissue

* Tissue types
* Nerve: neurons
* Epithelial: skin, mucus membranes, cervix
* Connective: everywhere, adipose, cartilage, etc
* Muscle
* Types of cell damage
* Physical
* Mechanical- something hits you
* Temperature- cold(frostbite), heat(heat stroke)
* Electrical- 3rd degree burn* Radiation
* Ionizing- chemo
* Non-ionizing- infrared, microwave
* UV- sunburn
* Chemical- lead, carbon monoxide, ethanol
* Drugs- alcohol, Tylenol
* Biologic- virus, bacteria
* Nutritional- obese, lack of vitamin/protein
* Second wind
* First step in exercise (break down glucose 1st, then the fat)
* Anaerobic <2min, breaks down glucose
* 30 min to maintain
* 60 min to burn fat

Unit 2

* KNOW Arterial Blood Gases
* Sodium – relationship to fluid and potassium
* Causes of hyper:
* Excess Na or loss of water. Use diuretic to treat
* Fluid retained, K low
* Causes of hypo:
* Vomiting, diarrhea, burns, inadequate intake
* Potassium – allabout it and its complications
* Fight / flight
* Allostasis and Homeostasis– Allostasis is adaptation to stress by “accepting” ex.have bad knees,switch to riding bike instead of jogging – Homeostasis wants to maintain stability by resistance to stress
* Know third component of fluid and electrolytes – protein – albumin. Keeps fluid where it needs to be (oncotic pressure)

Immunesystem

* AIDS
* Drainage - normals
* Drainage which are never normal
* Purulent and hemorragic
* Cells & phagocytosis (Elevated white blood cell count means infection) WBC left side shift is bacteria
* Masts cells: bronchospasm, smooth muscle contraction
* Causes for dysfunctional wound healing (COPD patient just had surgery, they haven’t healed, due to hypoxemia)(diabetics have sugar, infections LOVE it)
* Type 1,2,3,4,5 hypersensitivities (type 5 delayed, type 4=poison ivy, eat nut, and react immediately = type 1)
* 3 lines of defense (inflammatory, immune, anatomic (skin mucous membranes, mechanical clearance: cough, sneeze, vomit)
* Know the initial response to infections – skin’s role, mechanical clearance etc.

Musculoskeletal
*Know pain questions (type, location, referral, all the pain questions you would ask a client)
* Types:
* Cutaneous- sharp and burning. Skin or subcutaneous.
* Deep- more diffuse and throbbing.
* Visceral- diffuse, poorly defined. Stretching, distention or ischemia of tissues.
* Referred- toothache w/ heart problems.
* Chronic- >6 months* Location, radiation, type, duration, relieving/aggravating factors, associated sx, quantity (1-10)
* Know the bone healing process so you can determine the abnormal healing process
1. Hematoma formation- bleeding and hematoma form at bone end.
2. Cellular proliferation- osteoblasts enter.
3. Callus formation- matrix begins to form.
4. Ossification- mineralization of thefibrocartilaginous callus; osteoclast destroy dead bone.
5. Remoldeling- reorganization of new bone.
* Abnormal healing= non-union(bones fail to grow together), delayed union(8-9 months to heal), malunion(healed in wrong place).
* Arthritis
* Primary: (Rheumatoid) resulting from an immune response. Weight loss, fatigue, starts in big joints, inflamed, systemic manifestations,stiffness >30 min.
* Secondary: (Degenerative) rheumatoid conditions limited to a single or few joints; results from repetitive use. Stiffness <30 min. finger joints, pain and tenderness, instability and limited ROM.
* Ankylosing spondylitis (sero-negative): systemic immune inflammatory disease. Stiffening and fusion of spine, kyphosis. Common in young men.
* Gout: caused by...
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