fue trágico ver lo débil que el hombre se había convertido. estaba claro que su enfermedad le había debilitado en gran medida.
british or american, the language is basically the same and its global stature is backed up by massive english language training programs, an internationalbusiness that in texbooks, language courses, tape cassettes, video programmed and computerized introduction is worth hundreds of millions of pounds or dollas to the economies of the us and the uk
is the teaching of the english language worth a lot of money
británico o americano, el lenguaje es básicamente el mismo y su estatura global se apoya en programas masivos de capacitación en idiomaInglés, una empresa internacional que en textos, cursos de idiomas, casetes de cinta, la introducción de vídeo e informáticos programados se encuentra a cientos de millones de libras o dollas a las economías de los estados unidos y el Reino Unido
es la enseñanza del idioma Inglés vale mucho dinero
Yes. It is. I’m think that English language worth a lot of money, because is a basic tool thatallows us to obtain a good job in order to be trained to different changes in the economy of our country, in addition to these skills need to spend much money to know more about this language.
Target Situation Analysis (TSA)
Needs analysis was firmly established in the mid-1970s (West, 1998).
In the earlier periods needs analysis was mainly concerned with
linguistic and register analysis, and asDudley-Evans and St. John (1998)
suggest, needs were seen as discrete language items of grammar and
vocabulary. With the publication of Munby’s Communicative Syllabus
Design (1978) needs analysis moved towards placing the learner’s
purposes in the central position within the framework of needs analysis.
Consequently, the notion of target needs became paramount and research
proved thatfunction and situation were also fundamental. The term
Target Situation Analysis (TSA) was, in fact, first used by Chambers in
his 1980 article in which he tried to clarify the confusion of terminology.
For Chambers TSA is “communication in the target situation” (p.29).
In his work Munby (1978) introduced Communicative Needs Processor
(CNP). As Hutchinson and Waters (1987: 54) say:
With thedevelopment of the CNP it seemed as if ESP had
come of age. The machinery for identifying the needs of any
group of learners had been provided: all the course designers
had to do was to operate it.
In Munby’s CNP, the target needs and target level performance are
established by investigating the target situation, and his overall model
clearly establishes the place of needs analysis as central toESP, indeed
the necessary starting point in materials or course design (West, 1998).
In the CNP, account is taken of “the variables that affect communication
English for Specific Purposes world, Issue 4, 2008, www.esp-world.info
Introduction to Needs Analysis. Mehdi Haseli Songhori
needs by organizing them as parameters in a dynamic relationship to
each other” (Munby, 1978: 32).
Munby’soverall model is made up of the following elements:
1. Participants: information about the identity and language of the
learners: age, sex, nationality, present command of target
language, other languages known and extent of command;
2. Communication Needs Processor: investigates the particular
communication needs according to sociocultural and stylistic
variables which interact to determinea profile of such needs;
3. Profile of Needs: is established through the processing of data in
4. In the Meaning Processor “parts of the socioculturally
determined profile of communication needs are converted into
semantic subcategories of a predominantly pragmatic kind, and
marked with attitudinal tone” (Munby, 1978: 42);
5. The Language Skills Selector: identifies “the...