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Factors of Language Change

Introduction
Generally it is believed that most of the languages of Europe and India are the descendents of an ancient parent language which existed 4000 years ago. The name, traces, or the historical record of that language is no more available now. Modern Researchers identify it with the name of the “Indo-European Language”. Many Questions pop in every mind thatis interested in solving this mystery of language change:

1. How does language changes?
2. when this change appears?
3. Is it a constructive or destructive process?
4. Can language change be gauged?

The purpose of this work is not to search for the answers to all these Questions. Herein we have tried to collect the examples of how scholars succeeded in studying subtle changesin language.

Variables:
Independent Variables:
i. Sociolinguistic Factors.
ii. Psycholinguistic Factors
iii. Therapeutic Factors
iv. Chain Reaction Factors

Dependent Variables
i. Syntactic Aspects of Language
ii. Morphological Aspects
iii. PhoneticAspects

Methodology
This work is based on a Secondary or Academic Research . Only Qualitative Data will be collected and arranged. The aim of the work is to prepare a mini catalogue of the achievements attained until now.

Hypothesis:
Depending on my background knowledge of linguistics and its Method of Research I expect that

‘Even the subtlest change in language can e gauged.’Delimitations;

i. This work is not restricted to the study of changes in a specific language. It is a general overview of the changes taking/en place in different languages of the world.
ii. The changes will be described diachronically. Synchronic variations is not the topic of this work.
iii. This work is not restricted the study of only one feature-change. All the components may bediscussed if we felt it necessary.
iv. Countless causes of language change can be pointed out .here we are concerned with only those which are proven after Research, not those based on speculations.

Data Collection And Literature Review:
Language change can be studied under Four broad categories:
i. Sociolinguistic Factors
ii. Psycholinguistic Factors
iii. Therapeutic factors
iv.Chain Reaction factors

Sociolinguistic Changes:
Sociolinguistic causes of change can be studied under three heads:
i. Fashion And Random Fluctuations
ii. Foreign Influence
iii. Social Need

Random Fluctuations:
Every speaker tries to articulate the exact pronunciation of every word and segment. But naturally, no two utterances can be exactly alike. However, minor gaps betweendifferent articulations of the same sound remain imperceptible to human ears. The major differences are often successfully gauged. But since the listeners are more attentive to the message only, they hardly give feedback about the deviated pronunciation. Therefore, the speaker remains unaware of his pronunciation difference with the prototype sound. This gradual shift from the prototype pronunciation isnot effected by a few persons only. In fact every speaker contributes to this massive change in the pronunciation system. Thus, when the drift becomes marked enough, we realize the change has taken place.

Fashion:
Out of the variety of deviated pronunciations (of one or more segments) one or the other is preferred to by the majority of the speakers. This preferred pronunciation emerges as aFashion and qualifies the status of a new prototype sound. Just as there can be no logical and predictable reasons behind the trends in garment fashions, Fashions of pronunciation are also arbitrary and whimsical. But whatever they are, they leave little choice to the people.

Foreign Bodies:
Random Fluctuations and Fashions are not the sufficiently powerful factors to account for all changes...
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