European history

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REVIEW SHEET-Final Exam 2010

19th Century Ideologies
Unification of Germany and Italy
Second Industrial Revolution
Russian Bolshevik Revolution and Civil War
The Roaring 20s
The Great Depression
Totalitarian Dictators
The New Deal
World War II
The Cold War

Political Liberalism
• Included John Stuart Mill and HarrietTaylor—argued for “absolute freedom of opinion and entiment on all subjects, supported women’s rights” .Optimistic, represented the middle class (who had wealth but no political/social power). Believed people should be as free as possible. Believed in the basic rights of all people—believed in protection of civil liberties. Wanted to eliminate social and political privileges of conservatives(monarchy, aristocracy and clergy)

Economic Liberalism
• Thomas Maltus, David Ricardo, Adam Smith- The idea that government should not interfere in the workings of the economy.
• (1814-)
• Pro-aristocracy/monarchy/clergy (elitist), Wanted to maintain/restore the “old order” , order/stability, hierarchy/class divisions, authoritative institutions, God and tradition, Against equality,the individual, change, Against natural rights and constitutions

Scientific Socialism/Communism (Marxism)
• Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (authors, The Communist Manifesto, 1848)
• Agreed with Utopian Socialism in the equality of classes and the removal of private property. Despised Capitalism because it created prosperity for a few (bourgeoisie/middle class) and poverty/exploitation of themasses (proletariats/workers). Said, eventually, workers from all countries would unite in a revolution against Capitalist systems that would restructure society

Utopian Socialism
• Believed the common people were being exploited by the industrial revolution and suffered in slums, mines and factories. Were against the ownership of private property (against capitalism). Believed in sharedwork/family responsibilities. Enemies of both conservatives and liberals-. Created communal living “utopian” communities that showed how employers could offer decent working/living conditions AND make a profit!

• A sense of national consciousness based on awareness of being part of a community-a nation- that has common institutions, traditions, language, and customs and that becomesthe focus of the individual’s primary political loyalty.

• The policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas

• A policy of aggressive military preparedness.

• A nineteenth century intellectualand artistic movement that rejected the emphasis on reason of the Enlightenment. Importance of intuition, feeling, emotion and imagination as sources of knowing.

• A political theory that holds that all governments and existing social institutions are unnecessary and advocates a society based on voluntary cooperation.

• An ideology or movement that exalts the nation abovethe individual and calls for a centralized government with a dictatorial leader, economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition. Mussolini.

• Government control over all aspects of economic, social, political, cultural, and intellectual life, the subordination of the individual to the state, and insistence that the masses be actively involved in theregime’s goals.

• Political system in which the leader tells the people what to do, takes all political power for himself, and uses brutal police or military forces to maintain that power. He is not held responsible to the will of the people. Opposite to a democracy.

• A state that has a dictatorial government and some other trappings of a totalitarian state...
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