Regulation of gene expression by nutritional factors in ﬁsh
S Panserat & S J Kaushik
¤ Nutrition, Aquaculture & Genomics ‘NuAGe’ Unit, UMR 1067, INRA, Saint-Pee-sur-Nivelle, France
¤ Correspondence: S J Kaushik, Nutrition, Aquaculture & Genomics ‘NuAGe’ Unit, UMR 1067, INRA, 64310Saint-Pee-sur-Nivelle, France. E-mail: email@example.com
In the past few years, molecular tools have been increasingly used to complement basic husbandry techniques to assess the response at the whole animal or the farm level. This review aims at giving some examples from researches undertaken in ¢sh nutrition and gene expression and, more recently, on nutrigenomics and proteomics as appliedto ¢sh nutrition and feeding.
ary factors. In this short review, we present some examples of recent researches undertaken in the speci¢c area of nutrition and gene expression and, more recently, on genomics and proteomics as applied to ¢sh nutrition and feeding.
Nutrition and candidate gene expression Over the past two decades, several research groups have been engaged in understanding therelation between dietary/nutritional factors and metabolic or physiological e¡ects at the molecular level. These studies have contributed towards a better understanding of speci¢c metabolic pathways and towards assessing the nutritional control of the expression of genes corresponding to the metabolic steps involved (see Table 1).
Keywords: Nutrition, metabolism, gene expression, aquaculture,genomics, proteomics
Introduction Understanding the biochemical and metabolic pathways involved in the utilization of dietary macro- or micronutrients and energy supplied through feeds is useful for evaluating the response of organisms to nutrients, for optimizing dietary nutrient utilization and for diet development. Molecular tools enable us to gain a deeper insight into how the response ismediated or obtained through the intermediate metabolic steps involved at di¡erent levels of the organism. They thus complement basic husbandry techniques, which continue to be valuable tools for assessing the response at the whole animal or the farm level. Over the past two decades, aquaculture research has also taken advantage of the progress made in the application of molecular biological tools tounderstand the basics of metabolic regulation as a¡ected by diet-
Nutrition and early development In the area of nutrition of ¢sh larvae, studies using formulated compound diets allow us to show the implications of selected nutrients on the development of the digestive system, muscle or bone. The gut, as the ¢rst organ in contact with nutrients, plays a key role in the digestion and absorptionof nutrients and not all ¢sh have the same capacity to digest the di¡erent macronutrients. Nevertheless, very few studies have been undertaken to assess the molecular regulation of digestive enzymes. Because the digestive system
r 2010 The Authors Journal Compilation r 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Nutrient-Gene interactions S Panserat & S J Kaushik
Aquaculture Research, 2010, 41,751^762
Table 1 Examples of nutritionally regulated genes expressed in farmed ¢sh
Selected reference (one for each gene)
Digestion Amylase (intestine/pancreas) Trypsin (intestine/pancreas) Nutrient transport Sodium-phosphate co-transporter Lipoprotein lipase (mesenteric fat tissue) Protein metabolism Glutamine synthase (liver) Atrogin (muscle) Lipid metabolism Cholesterolbiosynthetic genes (liver) Delta-6 desaturase (liver) Glucose metabolism Glucokinase (liver) Glucose-6-phosphatase (liver) Hormonal actions Growth hormone receptor (mesenteric fat tissue) Insulin-like growth factor I (liver)
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