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Journal of Ethnopharmacology
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jep
Rosmarinus ofﬁcinalis L. hydroalcoholic extract, similar to ﬂuoxetine, reverses depressive-likebehavior without altering learning deﬁcit in olfactory bulbectomized mice
´ Daniele G. Machado a, Mauricio P. Cunha a, Vivian B. Neis a, Grasiela O. Balen a, Andre Colla a, Jaine Grando a, Patricia S. Brocardo a, Luis E.B. Bettio a, Juliana B. Dalmarco b, Daniel Rial c, ´ Rui D. Prediger c, Moacir G. Pizzolatti b, Ana Lucia S. Rodrigues a,n
a b c
´ ´ Departamento de Bioquımica, Centro deCiˆncias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil e ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Departamento de Quımica, Centro de Ciˆncias Fısicas e Matematicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil e Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 20 February 2012Received in revised form 28 May 2012 Accepted 11 June 2012 Keywords: Anhedonic behavior Acetylcholinesterase Rosmarinus ofﬁcinalis Hyperactivity Olfactory bulbectomy spatial learning
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Rosemary, Rosmarinus ofﬁcinalis L., has several therapeutic applications in folk medicine for the treatment of a wide range of diseases, including depression. Aim of thestudy: To evaluate the ability of Rosmarinus ofﬁcinalis hydroalcoholic extract (ROHE), as compared to the positive control ﬂuoxetine, to reverse behavioral (hyperactivity, anhedonic behavior and learning deﬁcit in water maze) and biochemical alterations (serum glucose level and acetylcholinesterase, AChE, activity) induced by an animal model of depression, the olfactory bulbectomy (OB) in mice.Materials and methods: Locomotor and exploratory behavior was assessed in the open-ﬁeld, novel object and novel cage tests, anhedonic behavior was assessed in the splash test; cognitive deﬁcits were evaluated in the water maze task. For the ﬁrst set of experiments, ROHE (10–300 mg/kg) or ﬂuoxetine (10 mg/kg) was administered once daily (p.o.) for 14 days after OB and the behavioral tests were performed.For the second set of experiments, serum glucose and hippocampal and cerebrocortical AChE activity were determined in OB and SHAM-operated mice treated orally with ROHE (10 mg/kg), ﬂuoxetine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. Results: ROHE (10–300 mg/kg), similarly to ﬂuoxetine, reversed OB-induced hyperactivity, increased exploratory and anhedonic behavior. OB needed signiﬁcantly more trials in the trainingsession to acquire the spatial information, but they displayed a similar proﬁle to that of SHAM mice in the test session (24 h later), demonstrating a selective deﬁcit in spatial learning, which was not reversed by ROHE or ﬂuoxetine. A reduced serum glucose level and an increased hippocampal AChE activity were observed in bulbectomized mice; only the latter effect was reversed by ﬂuoxetine, whileboth effects were reversed by ROHE. Conclusions: ROHE exerted an antidepressant-like effect in bulbectomized mice and was able to abolish AchE alterations and hypoglycemia, but not spatial learning deﬁcit induced by OB. Overall, results suggest the potential of Rosmarinus ofﬁcinalis for the treatment of depression, validating the traditional use of this plant. & 2012 Published by Elsevier IrelandLtd.
67 69 Moreover, the knowledge of medicinal plants often represents the only therapeutic option for many communities and ethnic groups in poor countries. However, few plants have been scientiﬁcally studied for the assessment of their quality, safety and efﬁcacy (Calixto, 2005). Rosemary, Rosmarinus ofﬁcinalis L. (Labiatae), is among a variety of plants used in folk medicine worldwide for...